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Article

α-Linolenic Acid-Rich Diet Influences Microbiota Composition and Villus Morphology of the Mouse Small Intestine

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Institute for Developmental Biology and Neurobiology, Faculty of Biology and Center for Computational Sciences in Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudingerweg 9, 55128 Mainz, Germany
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Fresenius Kabi Deutschland GmbH, Borkenberg 14, 61440 Oberursel, Germany
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Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (CTH), University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany
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Centro de Apoio Tecnológico Agro Alimentar (CATAA), Zona Industrial de Castelo Branco, Rua A, 6000-459 Castelo Branco, Portugal
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Nanobiomedicine, University Medical Center Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany
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Medical Department 2 (Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Pneumology, Endocrinology) Klinikum Darmstadt GmbH, Grafenstr. 9, 64283 Darmstadt, Germany
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Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany
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Metabolomics Core Facility, Philipps-University, 35043 Marburg, Germany
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Institute of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiochemistry, Philipps-University, 35043 Marburg, Germany
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Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, Christian-Albrechts-University Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany
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German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Partner Site RheinMain, 55131 Mainz, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 732; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030732
Received: 9 October 2019 / Revised: 4 March 2020 / Accepted: 6 March 2020 / Published: 11 March 2020
α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is well-known for its anti-inflammatory activity. In contrast, the influence of an ALA-rich diet on intestinal microbiota composition and its impact on small intestine morphology are not fully understood. In the current study, we kept adult C57BL/6J mice for 4 weeks on an ALA-rich or control diet. Characterization of the microbial composition of the small intestine revealed that the ALA diet was associated with an enrichment in Prevotella and Parabacteroides. In contrast, taxa belonging to the Firmicutes phylum, including Lactobacillus, Clostridium cluster XIVa, Lachnospiraceae and Streptococcus, had significantly lower abundance compared to control diet. Metagenome prediction indicated an enrichment in functional pathways such as bacterial secretion system in the ALA group, whereas the two-component system and ALA metabolism pathways were downregulated. We also observed increased levels of ALA and its metabolites eicosapentanoic and docosahexanoic acid, but reduced levels of arachidonic acid in the intestinal tissue of ALA-fed mice. Furthermore, intestinal morphology in the ALA group was characterized by elongated villus structures with increased counts of epithelial cells and reduced epithelial proliferation rate. Interestingly, the ALA diet reduced relative goblet and Paneth cell counts. Of note, high-fat Western-type diet feeding resulted in a comparable adaptation of the small intestine. Collectively, our study demonstrates the impact of ALA on the gut microbiome and reveals the nutritional regulation of gut morphology. View Full-Text
Keywords: α-linolenic acid; microbiota; epithelial renewal; goblet cells; paneth cells; villus morphology α-linolenic acid; microbiota; epithelial renewal; goblet cells; paneth cells; villus morphology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Todorov, H.; Kollar, B.; Bayer, F.; Brandão, I.; Mann, A.; Mohr, J.; Pontarollo, G.; Formes, H.; Stauber, R.; Kittner, J.M.; Endres, K.; Watzer, B.; Nockher, W.A.; Sommer, F.; Gerber, S.; Reinhardt, C. α-Linolenic Acid-Rich Diet Influences Microbiota Composition and Villus Morphology of the Mouse Small Intestine. Nutrients 2020, 12, 732. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030732

AMA Style

Todorov H, Kollar B, Bayer F, Brandão I, Mann A, Mohr J, Pontarollo G, Formes H, Stauber R, Kittner JM, Endres K, Watzer B, Nockher WA, Sommer F, Gerber S, Reinhardt C. α-Linolenic Acid-Rich Diet Influences Microbiota Composition and Villus Morphology of the Mouse Small Intestine. Nutrients. 2020; 12(3):732. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030732

Chicago/Turabian Style

Todorov, Hristo, Bettina Kollar, Franziska Bayer, Inês Brandão, Amrit Mann, Julia Mohr, Giulia Pontarollo, Henning Formes, Roland Stauber, Jens M. Kittner, Kristina Endres, Bernhard Watzer, Wolfgang A. Nockher, Felix Sommer, Susanne Gerber, and Christoph Reinhardt. 2020. "α-Linolenic Acid-Rich Diet Influences Microbiota Composition and Villus Morphology of the Mouse Small Intestine" Nutrients 12, no. 3: 732. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030732

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