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Influence of Alcohol and Red Meat Consumption on Life Expectancy: Results of 164 Countries from 1992 to 2013

by Chhabi Lal Ranabhat 1,2,3,*, Myung-Bae Park 1,* and Chun-Bae Kim 4,5,6,*
1
Department of Gerontology Health and Welfare, Pai Chai University, Seo-gu, Daejeon 35345, Korea
2
Policy Research Institute, Sanogaucharan 44600, Kathmandu, Nepal
3
Global Centre for Research and Development (GCRD), Kathmandu 44600, Nepal
4
Institute for Poverty Alleviation and International Development, Yonsei University, 1 Yonseidae-Gil, Wonju-City 26493, Gangwon-Do, Korea
5
Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, 20 Ilsan-ro Wonju-City 26426, Gandwon-do, Korea
6
Hongcheon-County Hypertension and Diabetes Registration and Education Center, 5 Sinjangdae-ro Hongcheon-Gun 25135, Gandwon-do, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020459
Received: 2 January 2020 / Revised: 4 February 2020 / Accepted: 7 February 2020 / Published: 12 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Background: High consumption of red meat, which is carcinogenic to humans, and misuse or abuse of alcohol drinking increase premature death and shortened life expectancy. The aim of this study was to examine the association of alcohol and red meat consumption with life expectancy (LE) by analyzing data from 164 countries using an ecological approach. Design: This was a longitudinal ecological study using data from the United Nation’s (UN) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) for 164 countries over the period 1992–2013. In regression analysis, the relationship of alcohol and red meat consumption with LE was estimated using a pooled ordinary least squares regression model. Alcohol and red meat consumption were measured every 5 years. Results: The consumption of alcohol and red meat in high-income countries (HIC) was about 4 times (36.8–143.0 kcal/capita/day) and 5 times (11.2–51.9 kcal/capita/day) higher than that in low-income countries (LIC). Red meat and alcohol consumption had a negative estimated effect on LE in HIC (b = −1.616 p = < 0.001 and b = −0.615, p = 0.003). Alcohol consumption was negatively associated with LE for all income groups, while positive relationships were found for all estimates associated with gross national income (GNI). Conclusions: Red meat and alcohol consumption appeared to have a negative impact on LE in high-income countries (HIC) and upper-middle-income countries (UMIC), although it had no significant association with LE in low-income countries (LIC) or lower-middle-income countries (LMIC). This study suggests reviewing the policies on the gradual reduction of alcohol abuse and the high consumption of red meat, particularly HIC and UMIC. View Full-Text
Keywords: red meat consumption; life expectancy; alcohol consumption; longitudinal ecological analysis; cancer; heart disease red meat consumption; life expectancy; alcohol consumption; longitudinal ecological analysis; cancer; heart disease
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Ranabhat, C.L.; Park, M.-B.; Kim, C.-B. Influence of Alcohol and Red Meat Consumption on Life Expectancy: Results of 164 Countries from 1992 to 2013. Nutrients 2020, 12, 459.

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