Background: High consumption of red meat, which is carcinogenic to humans, and misuse or abuse of alcohol drinking increase premature death and shortened life expectancy. The aim of this study was to examine the association of alcohol and red meat consumption with life expectancy (LE) by analyzing data from 164 countries using an ecological approach. Design: This was a longitudinal ecological study using data from the United Nation’s (UN) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) for 164 countries over the period 1992–2013. In regression analysis, the relationship of alcohol and red meat consumption with LE was estimated using a pooled ordinary least squares regression model. Alcohol and red meat consumption were measured every 5 years. Results: The consumption of alcohol and red meat in high-income countries (HIC) was about 4 times (36.8–143.0 kcal/capita/day) and 5 times (11.2–51.9 kcal/capita/day) higher than that in low-income countries (LIC). Red meat and alcohol consumption had a negative estimated effect on LE in HIC (b = −1.616 p
= < 0.001 and b = −0.615, p
= 0.003). Alcohol consumption was negatively associated with LE for all income groups, while positive relationships were found for all estimates associated with gross national income (GNI). Conclusions: Red meat and alcohol consumption appeared to have a negative impact on LE in high-income countries (HIC) and upper-middle-income countries (UMIC), although it had no significant association with LE in low-income countries (LIC) or lower-middle-income countries (LMIC). This study suggests reviewing the policies on the gradual reduction of alcohol abuse and the high consumption of red meat, particularly HIC and UMIC.
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