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Article

Expression of Telomeric Repeat–Containing RNA Decreases in Sarcopenia and Increases after Exercise and Nutrition Intervention

1
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, Bei-Hu Branch, Taipei 100, Taiwan
2
Community and Geriatric Medicine Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, Bei-Hu Branch, Taipei 108, Taiwan
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Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 100, Taiwan
4
Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
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Department of Family Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei 100, Taiwan
6
Health Science and Wellness Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3766; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123766
Received: 19 November 2020 / Revised: 3 December 2020 / Accepted: 5 December 2020 / Published: 8 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Implications of Non-coding RNA for Human Health)
Sarcopenia is defined as aging-related loss of muscle mass and function. Telomere length in chromosomes shortens with age and is modulated by telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA). This study aimed to explore the impact of aging and sarcopenia on telomere length and TERRA expression, and changes following strengthening exercise and nutrition intervention (supplement of branched-chain amino acids, calcium and vitamin D3) for 12 weeks in the sarcopenic population. Older adults (≥65 years old) were divided into non-sarcopenic controls (n = 36) and sarcopenic individuals (n = 36) after measurement of grip strength and body composition. The relative telomere length of leukocytes in all research participants was evaluated using the T/S ratio (telomere/single copy gene), and relative TERRA expression of leukocytes was determined by reverse-transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR). Generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to analyze the influence of sarcopenia and intervention on the outcomes. There was no significant difference in telomere length between control subjects and participants with sarcopenia. TERRA expression was lower in sarcopenic participants compared to that in non-sarcopenic controls (5.18 ± 2.98 vs. 2.51 ± 1.89; p < 0.001). In the sarcopenic group, intervention significantly increased TERRA expression, but not telomere length. The GEE analysis demonstrated that TERRA expression was negatively associated with sarcopenia (β coefficient = −2.705, p < 0.001) but positively associated with intervention (β coefficient = 1.599, p = 0.023). Sarcopenia is associated with a decrease in TERRA expression in leukocytes. Rebound TERRA expression (returning to the level similar to the non-sarcopenic controls) was observed in the sarcopenic group after exercise and nutrition intervention. Future studies are warranted to examine the potential of TERRA as a biomarker for sarcopenia and its subsequent responses to intervention. View Full-Text
Keywords: sarcopenia; telomere; TERRA; exercise; nutrition sarcopenia; telomere; TERRA; exercise; nutrition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, K.-V.; Chen, Y.-C.; Wu, W.-T.; Shen, H.-J.; Huang, K.-C.; Chu, H.-P.; Han, D.-S. Expression of Telomeric Repeat–Containing RNA Decreases in Sarcopenia and Increases after Exercise and Nutrition Intervention. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3766. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123766

AMA Style

Chang K-V, Chen Y-C, Wu W-T, Shen H-J, Huang K-C, Chu H-P, Han D-S. Expression of Telomeric Repeat–Containing RNA Decreases in Sarcopenia and Increases after Exercise and Nutrition Intervention. Nutrients. 2020; 12(12):3766. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123766

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chang, Ke-Vin, Yu-Chen Chen, Wei-Ting Wu, Hong-Jhin Shen, Kuo-Chin Huang, Hsueh-Ping Chu, and Der-Sheng Han. 2020. "Expression of Telomeric Repeat–Containing RNA Decreases in Sarcopenia and Increases after Exercise and Nutrition Intervention" Nutrients 12, no. 12: 3766. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12123766

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