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Article

Iron Status is Associated with Mood, Cognition, and Functional Ability in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

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Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Medicine, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
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ICVS/3B′s, PT Government Associate Laboratory, 4710-057 Braga/Guimarães, Portugal
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Clinical Academic Center—Braga, 4710-243 Braga, Portugal
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Associação Centro de Medicina P5 (ACMP5), 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
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Emergency Department, Intermediate Care Unit (EDIMCU), Hospital de Braga, 4710-243 Braga, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
This work was part of Carlos Portugal-Nunes′s MSc thesis.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3594; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113594
Received: 5 October 2020 / Revised: 2 November 2020 / Accepted: 19 November 2020 / Published: 23 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Several conditions are risk factors for iron deficiency (ID), some of which are highly prevalent in older individuals. Despite the amount of evidence pointing for a role of ID in cognition, mood and physical functional ability, the research addressing these associations in older individuals is still scarce. In the present study, 162 older community-dwelling individuals (29.53% classified as ID) were enrolled in a cross-sectional analysis and characterized regarding cognition, mood, functional ability, general nutritional intake and iron status. Assessment of iron status was performed using several blood biomarkers. Storage and erythropoiesis dimensions were positively associated with memory, along with an interaction (moderator effect) between iron storage and nutritional status. A more depressed mood was negatively associated with (iron) transport, transport saturation and erythropoiesis dimensions, and functional tiredness was positively associated with the erythropoiesis dimension. These observations indicate that lower iron status is associated with depressive mood, functional tiredness and poorer memory ability, with the latter moderated by nutritional status. These findings suggest that using iron as a continuous variable may be useful in finding associations with iron homeostasis, eventually missed when iron levels are considered within the usual classification groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron deficiency; mood; cognition; physical functional ability; aging iron deficiency; mood; cognition; physical functional ability; aging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Portugal-Nunes, C.; Castanho, T.C.; Amorim, L.; Moreira, P.S.; Mariz, J.; Marques, F.; Sousa, N.; Santos, N.C.; Palha, J.A. Iron Status is Associated with Mood, Cognition, and Functional Ability in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3594. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113594

AMA Style

Portugal-Nunes C, Castanho TC, Amorim L, Moreira PS, Mariz J, Marques F, Sousa N, Santos NC, Palha JA. Iron Status is Associated with Mood, Cognition, and Functional Ability in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3594. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113594

Chicago/Turabian Style

Portugal-Nunes, Carlos, Teresa C. Castanho, Liliana Amorim, Pedro S. Moreira, José Mariz, Fernanda Marques, Nuno Sousa, Nadine C. Santos, and Joana A. Palha 2020. "Iron Status is Associated with Mood, Cognition, and Functional Ability in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3594. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113594

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