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Article

Are Obese Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder More Likely to Be Selenium Deficient? Research Findings on Pre- and Post-Pubertal Children

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
2
The Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3
Department of Bioanalysis and Drugs Analysis, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-793 Warsaw, Poland
4
Department of Drug Technology and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-793 Warsaw, Poland
5
Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Early Intervention, Medical University of Lublin, 20-439 Lublin, Poland
6
Department of Human Physiology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-080 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3581; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113581
Received: 28 October 2020 / Revised: 13 November 2020 / Accepted: 18 November 2020 / Published: 22 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Metabolism and Obesity Prevention)
Selenium is involved in many metabolic pathways that are critical for life. Information concerning the metabolic effects of selenium in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obesity is still conflicting and incomplete. The pre- and post-pubertal selenium profiles of patients with ASD and obesity have not yet been investigated. The goal of the study was to examine selenium content before and after puberty in euthyroid children diagnosed with ASD, compared to age-matched neurotypical controls, with respect to overweight or obesity as a co-existing pathology. Serum, toenail, and 24h urine selenium levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in 287 prepubertal children (mean age 8.09 years), divided into groups: ASD with overweight/obesity (ASD+/Ob+); ASD without overweight/obesity (ASD+/Ob−); non-ASD with overweight/obesity (ASD−/Ob+); and non-ASD without overweight/obesity (ASD−/Ob−). The assessment was repeated in 258 of the children after puberty (mean age 14.26 years).The lowest serum (p < 0.001), urine (p < 0.001) and toenail (p < 0.001) selenium levels before and after puberty were observed in ASD+/Ob+ patients, and the highest in ASD−/Ob−. There were no differences in serum/toenail selenium levels between ASD+/Ob− and ASD−/Ob+ groups. The presence of ASD was associatedwith lower serum (p < 0.001) and toenail (p < 0.001) selenium in BMI-matched groups. In neurotypical patients, post-pubertal serum selenium levels were lower (p < 0.001) than pre-pubertal levels. In the multiple linear regression analyses, selenium levels showed inverse relationships with BMI (p < 0.001) and male gender (p < 0.001), irrespective of the sample type. The serum (p = 0.002) and toenail (p < 0.001) selenium levels were inversely associated with the presence of ASD. ASD, obesity/overweight, and male gender have independent impacts on selenium levels in children. Puberty may affect selenium content in neurotypical children of both genders, but not in ASD patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; autism; selenium; thyroid hormones obesity; autism; selenium; thyroid hormones
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MDPI and ACS Style

Błażewicz, A.; Szymańska, I.; Dolliver, W.; Suchocki, P.; Turło, J.; Makarewicz, A.; Skórzyńska-Dziduszko, K. Are Obese Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder More Likely to Be Selenium Deficient? Research Findings on Pre- and Post-Pubertal Children. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3581. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113581

AMA Style

Błażewicz A, Szymańska I, Dolliver W, Suchocki P, Turło J, Makarewicz A, Skórzyńska-Dziduszko K. Are Obese Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder More Likely to Be Selenium Deficient? Research Findings on Pre- and Post-Pubertal Children. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3581. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113581

Chicago/Turabian Style

Błażewicz, Anna, Iwona Szymańska, Wojciech Dolliver, Piotr Suchocki, Jadwiga Turło, Agata Makarewicz, and Katarzyna Skórzyńska-Dziduszko. 2020. "Are Obese Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder More Likely to Be Selenium Deficient? Research Findings on Pre- and Post-Pubertal Children" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3581. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113581

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