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Effect of Low-Immunogenic Yogurt Drinks and Probiotic Bacteria on Immunoreactivity of Cow’s Milk Proteins and Tolerance Induction—In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

1
Department of Immunology and Food Microbiology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10 Str., 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Institute of Innovation in the Dairy Industry, Kormoranów 1 Str., 11-700 Mrągowo, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3390; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113390
Received: 13 October 2020 / Revised: 28 October 2020 / Accepted: 2 November 2020 / Published: 4 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Immunology)
There is no effective therapy for milk allergy. The role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and probiotics in protection against allergy-related outcomes is still under investigation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunomodulative and therapeutic potential of yogurt drinks in cow’s milk allergy (CMA) management. We compared immunoreactivity of α-casein (α-CN), β-casein (β-CN), κ-casein (κ-CN), α-lactalbumin (α-LA), and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) in 27 yogurt drinks fermented with different basic yogurt cultures, or yogurt cultures enriched with Lactobacillus plantarum and/or Bifidobacterium lactis strains, by competitive ELISA assay. Drinks with the lowest antigenic potential were used as allergoids for CMA therapy. BALB/c mice were sensitized via intraperitoneal injection of α-CN + β-LG mixture with aluminum adjuvant, and gavaged with increasing doses of selected low-immunogenic drinks (YM—basic, or YM-LB—enriched with L. plantarum and B. lactis) to induce tolerance. Milk- or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-dosed mice served as controls. Compared to milk, the immunoreactivity of proteins in drinks increased or decreased, depending on the bacterial sets applied for fermentation. Only a few sets acted synergistically in reducing immunoreactivity. The selected low-immunogenic drinks stimulated allergic mice for profiling Th2 to Th1 response and acquire tolerance, and the effect was greater with YM-LB drink, which during long-lasting interventional feeding strongly increased the secretion of regulatory cytokines, i.e., IL-10 and TGF-β, and IgA and decreased IL-4, IgE, and anti-(α-CN + β-LG) IgG1. The studies revealed variations in the potency of yogurt bacteria to change allergenicity of milk proteins and the need for their strict selection to obtain a safe product for allergy sufferers. The YM-LB drink with reduced antigenic potential may be a source of allergoids used in the immunotherapy of IgE mediated CMA, but further clinical or volunteer studies are required. View Full-Text
Keywords: yogurt cultures; Lactobacillus plantarum; Bifidobacterium lactis; cow’s milk allergy mouse model; desensitization yogurt cultures; Lactobacillus plantarum; Bifidobacterium lactis; cow’s milk allergy mouse model; desensitization
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Wróblewska, B.; Kaliszewska-Suchodoła, A.; Fuc, E.; Markiewicz, L.H.; Ogrodowczyk, A.M.; Złotkowska, D.; Wasilewska, E. Effect of Low-Immunogenic Yogurt Drinks and Probiotic Bacteria on Immunoreactivity of Cow’s Milk Proteins and Tolerance Induction—In Vitro and In Vivo Studies. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3390.

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