The Metabolic Effects of Cynara Supplementation in Overweight and Obese Class I Subjects with Newly Detected Impaired Fasting Glycemia: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial
IRCCS Mondino Foundation, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Unit of Human and Clinical Nutrition, Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Research and Development Unit, Indena, 20139 Milan, Italy
Department of Brain and Behavioral Science, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona “Istituto Santa Margherita”, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
Department of Biology, Sakhir Campus, College of Science, University of Bahrain, Sakheer P.O. Box 32038, Bahrain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3298; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113298
Received: 29 September 2020 / Revised: 19 October 2020 / Accepted: 26 October 2020 / Published: 28 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements for Metabolic and Gastrointestinal Disorders)
Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is a condition that precedes diabetes and increases the risk of developing it. Studies support the hypoglycemic effect of Cynarascolymus (Cs) extracts due to the content of chlorogenic acid, which is a potent inhibitor of glucose 6-phosphate translocase and of dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives that modulate the activity of alpha-glucosidase. Given this background, we investigated whether a new highly standardized Cs extract could improve glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) Triglycerides, Apolipo protein B (ApoB), Apolipo protein A (ApoA), waist circumference, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in overweight subjects with newly diagnosed IFG. Fifty-four subjects (females/males 26/28, mean ± SD age 51.5 ± 6.2) were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (n = 27) and placebo (n = 27). After multiple testing correction, statistically significant interactions between time and group were observed for the primary endpoint glycemia (β = 0.36, p < 0.0001) and for the secondary endpoints HDL (β = −0.10, p < 0.0001), total cholesterol/HDL (β = 0.27, p < 0.0001), LDL (β = 0.15, p = 0.005), LDL/HDL (β = 0.23, p = 0.001), insulin (β = 1.28, p = 0.04), glycated hemoglobin (β = 0.21, p = 0.0002), A1c-derived average glucose (β = 0.34, p = 0.0002), ApoB (β = 6.00, p = 0.01), ApoA (β = −4.50, p = 0.04), ApoB/ApoA (β = 0.08, p = 0.003), waist circumference (β = 1.89, p = 0.05), VATβ = 222.37, p = 0.005). In conclusion, these results confirm that Cs supplementation has a significant effect on metabolic parameters in IFG patients.