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Open AccessArticle

Time-Restricted Eating as a Nutrition Strategy for Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: A Feasibility Study

1
Exercise and Nutrition Research Program, Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, 215 Spring Street, Victoria 3000, Australia
2
Department of Dietetics, Nutrition and Sport, La Trobe University, Plenty Road and Kingsbury Drive, Bundoora, Victoria 3086, Australia
3
School of Behavioural and Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Locked Bag 4115, Fitzroy, Victoria Melbourne 3065, Australia
4
School of Psychology and Public Health, La Trobe University Albury-Wodonga Campus, 133 McKoy Street, West Wodonga, Victoria 3690, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3228; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113228
Received: 26 August 2020 / Revised: 7 October 2020 / Accepted: 20 October 2020 / Published: 22 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circadian Misalignment, Nutrition, and Cardiometabolic Health)
Individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) require a long-term dietary strategy for blood glucose management and may benefit from time-restricted eating (TRE, where the duration between the first and last energy intake is restricted to 8–10 h/day). We aimed to determine the feasibility of TRE for individuals with T2D. Participants with T2D (HbA1c >6.5 to <9%, eating window >12 h/day) were recruited to a pre-post, non-randomised intervention consisting of a 2-week Habitual period to establish baseline dietary intake, followed by a 4-weeks TRE intervention during which they were instructed to limit all eating occasions to between 10:00 and 19:00 h on as many days of each week as possible. Recruitment, retention, acceptability, and safety were recorded throughout the study as indicators of feasibility. Dietary intake, glycaemic control, psychological well-being, acceptability, cognitive outcomes, and physiological measures were explored as secondary outcomes. From 594 interested persons, and 27 eligible individuals, 24 participants enrolled and 19 participants (mean ± SD; age: 50 ± 9 years, BMI: 34 ± 5 kg/m2, HbA1c: 7.6 ± 1.1%) completed the 6-week study. Overall daily dietary intake did not change between Habitual (~8400 kJ/d; 35% carbohydrate, 20% protein, 41% fat, 1% alcohol) and TRE periods (~8500 kJ/d; 35% carbohydrate, 19% protein, 42% fat, 1% alcohol). Compliance to the 9 h TRE period was 72 ± 24% of 28 days (i.e., ~5 days/week), with varied adherence (range: 4–100%). Comparisons of adherent vs. non-adherent TRE days showed that adherence to the 9-h TRE window reduced daily energy intake through lower absolute carbohydrate and alcohol intakes. Overall, TRE did not significantly improve measures of glycaemic control (HbA1c −0.2 ± 0.4%; p = 0.053) or reduce body mass. TRE did not impair or improve psychological well-being, with variable effects on cognitive function. Participants described hunger, daily stressors, and emotions as the main barriers to adherence. We demonstrate that 4-weeks of TRE is feasible and achievable for these individuals with T2D to adhere to for at least 5 days/week. The degree of adherence to TRE strongly influenced daily energy intake. Future trials may benefit from supporting participants to incorporate TRE in regular daily life and to overcome barriers to adherence. View Full-Text
Keywords: intermittent fasting; dietary adherence; energy restriction; psychological well-being; cognitive function; glycaemic control intermittent fasting; dietary adherence; energy restriction; psychological well-being; cognitive function; glycaemic control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Parr, E.B.; Devlin, B.L.; Lim, K.H.C.; Moresi, L.N.Z.; Geils, C.; Brennan, L.; Hawley, J.A. Time-Restricted Eating as a Nutrition Strategy for Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: A Feasibility Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3228. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113228

AMA Style

Parr EB, Devlin BL, Lim KHC, Moresi LNZ, Geils C, Brennan L, Hawley JA. Time-Restricted Eating as a Nutrition Strategy for Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: A Feasibility Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3228. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113228

Chicago/Turabian Style

Parr, Evelyn B.; Devlin, Brooke L.; Lim, Karen H.C.; Moresi, Laura N.Z.; Geils, Claudia; Brennan, Leah; Hawley, John A. 2020. "Time-Restricted Eating as a Nutrition Strategy for Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: A Feasibility Study" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3228. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113228

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