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Article

A High Protein Calorie Restriction Diet Alters the Gut Microbiome in Obesity

1
The Vatche and Tamar Manoukian Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
2
UCLA Microbiome Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
3
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Parenteral Nutrition, Veterans Administration Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
4
Department of Medicine, Veterans Administration Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
5
Center for Human Nutrition, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3221; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103221
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 15 October 2020 / Accepted: 18 October 2020 / Published: 21 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain-Gut Microbiota Interactions in Obesity)
Background: High protein calorie restriction diets have shown clinical efficacy for obesity, but the mechanisms are not fully known. The intestinal microbiome is a mediator of obesity and preclinical data support an effect of high protein diet (HPD) on the gut microbiome of obesity, but there are few studies in humans. Methods: To address this, we conducted a dietary intervention trial of 80 overweight and obese subjects who were randomized to a calorie-restricted high protein diet (HPD) (30% calorie intake) or calorie-restricted normal protein diet (NPD) (15%) for 8 weeks. Baseline dietary intake patterns were assessed by the Diet History Questionnaire III. Longitudinal fecal sampling was performed at baseline, week 1, week 2, week 4, week 6, and week 8, for a total of 365 samples. Intestinal microbiome composition was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: At baseline, microbial composition was associated with fiber and protein intake. Subjects on the HPD showed a significant increase in microbial diversity as measured by the Shannon index compared to those on the NPD. The HPD was also associated with significant differences in microbial composition after treatment compared to the NPD. Both diets induced taxonomic shifts compared to baseline, including enrichment of Akkermansia spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. and depletion of Prevotella spp. Conclusion: These findings provide evidence that weight loss diets alter the gut microbiome in obesity and suggest differential effects of HPDs compared to NPDs which may influence the clinical response to HPD. View Full-Text
Keywords: high protein diet; calorie restriction; microbiome; obesity; randomized controlled trial high protein diet; calorie restriction; microbiome; obesity; randomized controlled trial
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dong, T.S.; Luu, K.; Lagishetty, V.; Sedighian, F.; Woo, S.-L.; Dreskin, B.W.; Katzka, W.; Chang, C.; Zhou, Y.; Arias-Jayo, N.; Yang, J.; Ahdoot, A.; Li, Z.; Pisegna, J.R.; Jacobs, J.P. A High Protein Calorie Restriction Diet Alters the Gut Microbiome in Obesity. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3221. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103221

AMA Style

Dong TS, Luu K, Lagishetty V, Sedighian F, Woo S-L, Dreskin BW, Katzka W, Chang C, Zhou Y, Arias-Jayo N, Yang J, Ahdoot A, Li Z, Pisegna JR, Jacobs JP. A High Protein Calorie Restriction Diet Alters the Gut Microbiome in Obesity. Nutrients. 2020; 12(10):3221. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103221

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dong, Tien S., Kayti Luu, Venu Lagishetty, Farzaneh Sedighian, Shih-Lung Woo, Benjamin W. Dreskin, William Katzka, Candace Chang, Yi Zhou, Nerea Arias-Jayo, Julianne Yang, Aaron Ahdoot, Zhaoping Li, Joseph R. Pisegna, and Jonathan P. Jacobs 2020. "A High Protein Calorie Restriction Diet Alters the Gut Microbiome in Obesity" Nutrients 12, no. 10: 3221. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103221

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