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Open AccessArticle

Vitamin D Status Impacts Genital Mucosal Immunity and Markers of HIV-1 Susceptibility in Women

1
CONRAD, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA 23507, USA
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CONRAD, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Arlington, VA 22209, USA
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V.A. Medical Center, White River Junction, VT 05009, USA
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Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
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Milken Institute School of Public Health and Health Services, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3176; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103176
Received: 14 September 2020 / Revised: 12 October 2020 / Accepted: 13 October 2020 / Published: 17 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
While vitamin D insufficiency is known to impact a multitude of health outcomes, including HIV-1, little is known about the role of vitamin D-mediated immune regulation in the female reproductive tract (FRT). We performed a pilot clinical study of 20 women with circulating 25(OH)D levels <62.5 nmol/L. Participants were randomized into either weekly or daily high-dose oral vitamin D supplementation groups. In addition to serum vitamin D levels, genital mucosal endpoints, including soluble mediators, immune cell populations, gene expression, and ex vivo HIV-1 infection, were assessed. While systemic vitamin D levels showed a significant increase following supplementation, these changes translated into modest effects on the cervicovaginal factors studied. Paradoxically, post-supplementation vitamin D levels were decreased in cervicovaginal fluids. Given the strong correlation between vitamin D status and HIV-1 infection and the widespread nature of vitamin D deficiency, further understanding of the role of vitamin D immunoregulation in the female reproductive tract is important. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D supplementation; HIV-1 susceptibility; immune regulation vitamin D supplementation; HIV-1 susceptibility; immune regulation
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Anderson, S.M.; Thurman, A.R.; Chandra, N.; Jackson, S.S.; Asin, S.; Rollenhagen, C.; Ghosh, M.; Daniels, J.; Vann, N.C.; Clark, M.R.; Doncel, G.F. Vitamin D Status Impacts Genital Mucosal Immunity and Markers of HIV-1 Susceptibility in Women. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3176.

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