Decades of research and experimental studies have investigated Huntington’s disease (HD), a rare neurodegenerative disease. Similarly, several studies have investigated whether high/moderate adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and specific macro and micronutrients can decrease cognitive loss and provide a neuroprotective function to neurons. This review systematically identifies and examines studies that have investigated Mediterranean Diet adherence, micro- and macronutrients, supplementation and caloric intake in people with HD, in order to identify if dietary exposures resulted in improvement of disease symptoms, a delay in age of onset or if they contributed to an earlier age of onset in people with HD. A systematic search of PubMed, Directory of open access journal and HubMed was performed independently by two reviewers using specific search terms criteria for studies. The identified abstracts were screened and the studies were included in the review if they satisfied predetermined inclusion criteria. Reference screening of included studies was also performed. A total of 18 studies were included in the review. A few studies found that patients who had high/moderate adherence to Mediterranean Diet showed a slight improvement in their Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale and Total Functional Capacity. In addition, people with HD who had high Mediterranean Diet adherence showed an improvement in both cognitive and motor scores and had a better quality of life compared to patients who had low Mediterranean Diet adherence. Furthermore, a few studies showed that supplementation with specific nutrients, such as triheaptanoin, L-acetyl-carnitine and creatine, had no beneficial effect on the patients’ Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale score. A few studies suggest that the Mediterranean Diet may confer a motor and cognitive benefit to people with HD. Unfortunately, there was little consistency among study findings. It is important for more research to be conducted to have a better understanding of which dietary exposures are beneficial and may result delaying age of onset or disease progression in people with HD.
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