Many studies have explored the association between n-3 fatty acids and depression, but research on the associations of n-6 fatty acids and n-6:n-3 ratio with depression is more scarce, and the results are controversial. Therefore, we conducted this cross-sectional study to explore the associations of n-3 and n-6 fatty acid intakes and n-6:n-3 ratio with the risk of depressive symptoms using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2016. Dietary data on n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were obtained through two 24-h dietary recall interviews, and were adjusted by energy. Depressive symptoms were measured by PHQ-9 (nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire). We applied logistic regression and restricted cubic spline models to assess the relationships of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids intake and n-6:n-3 ratio with the risk of depressive symptoms. A total of 17,431 individuals over 18 years old were enrolled in this study. In the multivariate-adjusted model 2, compared with the lowest category, the highest odd ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for n-3 fatty acid intake and n-6:n-3 ratio were 0.71 (0.55–0.92) and 1.66 (1.10–2.50), and middle OR (95% CI) for n-6 fatty acid intake was 0.72 (0.56–0.92), respectively. Our study suggests that n-3 and n-6 fatty acids intake were inversely associated with the risk of depressive symptoms, while the n-6:n-3 ratio was positively associated with the risk of depressive symptoms.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited