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Open AccessReview

Non-Responsive Coeliac Disease: A Comprehensive Review from the NHS England National Centre for Refractory Coeliac Disease

1
Academic Unit of Gastroenterology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK
2
Lydia Becker Institute of Inflammation and Immunology, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
3
Department of Haematology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010216
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 14 January 2020
Coeliac disease is a common small intestinal enteropathy which manifests following ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Since gluten was identified as the driving factor in coeliac disease, the gluten-free diet (GFD) has remained the mainstay of treatment. While most individuals will display improvement in symptoms and signs of coeliac disease following institution of the GFD, up to 30% will continue to experience symptoms and/or have persisting intestinal inflammation. These individuals can be classified as having non-responsive coeliac disease (NRCD), which may be associated with dietary indiscretion, slow healing, refractory coeliac disease, and/or an alternative condition. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the causes of NRCD in adults, highlight a systematic approach to investigate these patients, and appraise the latest management aspects of this subset of coeliac disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: coeliac disease; non-responsiveness; refractory coeliac disease; gluten free diet coeliac disease; non-responsiveness; refractory coeliac disease; gluten free diet
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Penny, H.A.; Baggus, E.M.R.; Rej, A.; Snowden, J.A.; Sanders, D.S. Non-Responsive Coeliac Disease: A Comprehensive Review from the NHS England National Centre for Refractory Coeliac Disease. Nutrients 2020, 12, 216.

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