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Open AccessReview

The Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Snacking and Weight among Adolescents: A Scoping Review

1
Department of Psychology, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
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Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
3
Health Science Center Libraries, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
4
Department of Health Outcomes and Biomedical Informatics, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-First Authors.
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010167
Received: 21 November 2019 / Revised: 21 December 2019 / Accepted: 31 December 2019 / Published: 7 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Snacking Behaviors and Weight Status)
Eating behaviors, including unhealthy snacking or excessive snacking leading to excess calorie consumption, may contribute to obesity among adolescents. Socioeconomic status (SES) also significantly influences eating behaviors, and low SES is associated with increased risk for obesity. However, little is known regarding the relationship between snacking behavior and SES among adolescents and how this may contribute to obesity-related outcomes. The primary objective of this scoping review was to review the literature to assess and characterize the relationship between SES and snacking in adolescents. The secondary objective was to assess weight-related outcomes and their relation to snacking habits. Included articles were published between January 2000 and May 2019; written in English, Portuguese, or Spanish; and focused on adolescents (13–17 years). In total, 14 bibliographic databases were searched, and seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Preliminary evidence from the seven included studies suggests a weak but potential link between SES and snacking. Additionally, these dietary patterns seemed to differ by sex and income type of country. Finally, only three of the included studies addressed weight-related outcomes, but the overall available evidence suggests that snacking does not significantly affect weight-related outcomes. Due to the small number of included studies, results should be interpreted with caution. View Full-Text
Keywords: review; snacking; obesity; adolescents; socioeconomic status; weight-related outcomes review; snacking; obesity; adolescents; socioeconomic status; weight-related outcomes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Williamson, V.G.; Dilip, A.; Dillard, J.R.; Morgan-Daniel, J.; Lee, A.M.; Cardel, M.I. The Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Snacking and Weight among Adolescents: A Scoping Review. Nutrients 2020, 12, 167.

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