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Article

Apo-14´-Carotenoic Acid Is a Novel Endogenous and Bioactive Apo-Carotenoid

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary
2
Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidade de Vigo, Faculdad de Química, 36310 Vigo, Spain
3
Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary
4
Paprika Bioanalytics BT, 4002 Debrecen, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2084; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092084
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 20 August 2019 / Accepted: 26 August 2019 / Published: 4 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids in Human Nutrition)
Carotenoids can be metabolized to various apo-carotenoids and retinoids. Apo-15´-carotenoic acid (retinoic acid, RA) is a potent activator of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) in its all-trans- (ATRA) and 9-cis- (9CRA) forms. In this study we show firstly, that apo-14´-carotenoic acid (A14CA), besides retinoic acids, is present endogenously and with increased levels in the human organism after carrot juice supplementation rich in β-carotene. All-trans-A14C (ATA14CA) is just a moderate activator of RAR-transactivation in reporter cell lines but can potently activate retinoic acid response element (RARE)-mediated signalling in DR5/RARE-reporter mice and potently increase retinoid-reporter target gene expression in ATA14CA-supplemented mice and treated MM6 cells. Further metabolism to all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinoic acid (ATDHRA) may be the key for its potent effects on retinoid target gene activation in ATA14CA-treated MM6 cells and in liver of supplemented mice. We conclude that besides RAs, there are alternative ways to activate RAR-response pathways in the mammalian organism. ATA14CA alone and in combination with its metabolite ATDHRA may be an alternative pathway for potent RAR-mediated signalling. View Full-Text
Keywords: apo-carotenoids; retinoic acid; vitamin A; carotene apo-carotenoids; retinoic acid; vitamin A; carotene
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aydemir, G.; Domínguez, M.; de Lera, A.R.; Mihaly, J.; Törőcsik, D.; Rühl, R. Apo-14´-Carotenoic Acid Is a Novel Endogenous and Bioactive Apo-Carotenoid. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2084. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092084

AMA Style

Aydemir G, Domínguez M, de Lera AR, Mihaly J, Törőcsik D, Rühl R. Apo-14´-Carotenoic Acid Is a Novel Endogenous and Bioactive Apo-Carotenoid. Nutrients. 2019; 11(9):2084. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092084

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aydemir, Gamze, Marta Domínguez, Angel R. de Lera, Johanna Mihaly, Dániel Törőcsik, and Ralph Rühl. 2019. "Apo-14´-Carotenoic Acid Is a Novel Endogenous and Bioactive Apo-Carotenoid" Nutrients 11, no. 9: 2084. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11092084

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