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Open AccessArticle

Apo-14´-Carotenoic Acid Is a Novel Endogenous and Bioactive Apo-Carotenoid

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary
Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidade de Vigo, Faculdad de Química, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary
Paprika Bioanalytics BT, 4002 Debrecen, Hungary
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(9), 2084;
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 20 August 2019 / Accepted: 26 August 2019 / Published: 4 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carotenoids in Human Nutrition)
Carotenoids can be metabolized to various apo-carotenoids and retinoids. Apo-15´-carotenoic acid (retinoic acid, RA) is a potent activator of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) in its all-trans- (ATRA) and 9-cis- (9CRA) forms. In this study we show firstly, that apo-14´-carotenoic acid (A14CA), besides retinoic acids, is present endogenously and with increased levels in the human organism after carrot juice supplementation rich in β-carotene. All-trans-A14C (ATA14CA) is just a moderate activator of RAR-transactivation in reporter cell lines but can potently activate retinoic acid response element (RARE)-mediated signalling in DR5/RARE-reporter mice and potently increase retinoid-reporter target gene expression in ATA14CA-supplemented mice and treated MM6 cells. Further metabolism to all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinoic acid (ATDHRA) may be the key for its potent effects on retinoid target gene activation in ATA14CA-treated MM6 cells and in liver of supplemented mice. We conclude that besides RAs, there are alternative ways to activate RAR-response pathways in the mammalian organism. ATA14CA alone and in combination with its metabolite ATDHRA may be an alternative pathway for potent RAR-mediated signalling. View Full-Text
Keywords: apo-carotenoids; retinoic acid; vitamin A; carotene apo-carotenoids; retinoic acid; vitamin A; carotene
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aydemir, G.; Domínguez, M.; de Lera, A.R.; Mihaly, J.; Törőcsik, D.; Rühl, R. Apo-14´-Carotenoic Acid Is a Novel Endogenous and Bioactive Apo-Carotenoid. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2084.

AMA Style

Aydemir G, Domínguez M, de Lera AR, Mihaly J, Törőcsik D, Rühl R. Apo-14´-Carotenoic Acid Is a Novel Endogenous and Bioactive Apo-Carotenoid. Nutrients. 2019; 11(9):2084.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aydemir, Gamze; Domínguez, Marta; de Lera, Angel R.; Mihaly, Johanna; Törőcsik, Dániel; Rühl, Ralph. 2019. "Apo-14´-Carotenoic Acid Is a Novel Endogenous and Bioactive Apo-Carotenoid" Nutrients 11, no. 9: 2084.

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