Childhood and adolescent obesity has become one of the most vital challenges to overcome in the present age. Physical fitness, physical activity and the Mediterranean diet (MD) are valuable tools for its prevention and treatment. The main objective of this study is to analyze the associations between health-related physical fitness components, body composition and adherence to the MD in 917 adolescents aged from 13- to 16-years-old. The ALPHA-Fitness Test was used to measure physical fitness and body composition, and the Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (KIDMED) questionnaire was employed to assess the adherence to the MD. The associations between variables were tested according to gender and age a generalized linear model (GLM) univariate analysis (two factors) and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, with Bonferroni posthoc). As to the body composition and physical fitness variables, significant differences were obtained in both genders but not in relation to the adherence to the MD. The boys performed better in the physical fitness tests. Age was a determinant factor in adherence to the MD in the total sample, lowering as the age of the sample increases. Both the boys and girls who had a significantly higher performance in the endurance test were those who showed high/medium adherence to the MD. It is concluded that higher levels of cardiovascular endurance in boys and girls are associated with a medium and high adherence to the MD.
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