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Metabolic Endotoxemia: A Potential Underlying Mechanism of the Relationship between Dietary Fat Intake and Risk for Cognitive Impairments in Humans?

1
Team Lifelong Exposure Health and Aging, Inserm, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, Univ. Bordeaux U1219, F-33000 Bordeaux, France
2
Univ-Lyon, CarMeN Laboratory, INRA U1397, Inserm U1060, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, INSA Lyon, Charles Mérieux Medical School, FR-69600 Oullins, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1887; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081887
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 13 August 2019
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Abstract

(1) Background: Nutrition is a major lifestyle factor that can prevent the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Diet-induced metabolic endotoxemia has been proposed as a major root cause of inflammation and these pathways emerge as detrimental factors of healthy ageing. The aim of this paper was to update research focusing on the relationship between a fat-rich diet and endotoxemia, and to discuss the potential role of endotoxemia in cognitive performances. (2) Methods: We conducted a non-systematic literature review based on the PubMed database related to fat-rich meals, metabolic endotoxemia and cognitive disorders including dementia in humans. A total of 40 articles out of 942 in the first screening met the inclusion criteria. (3) Results: Evidence suggested that a fat-rich diet, depending on its quality, quantity and concomitant healthy food components, could influence metabolic endotoxemia. Since only heterogeneous cross-sectional studies are available, it remains unclear to what extent endotoxemia could be associated or not with cognitive disorders and dementia. (4) Conclusions: A fat-rich diet has the capability to provide significant increases in circulating endotoxins, which highlights nutritional strategies as a promising area for future research on inflammatory-associated diseases. The role of endotoxemia in cognitive disorders and dementia remains unclear and deserves further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrition; dietary fat; high-fat; endotoxemia; lipopolysaccharide; Alzheimer’s disease; dementia; humans nutrition; dietary fat; high-fat; endotoxemia; lipopolysaccharide; Alzheimer’s disease; dementia; humans
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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André, P.; Laugerette, F.; Féart, C. Metabolic Endotoxemia: A Potential Underlying Mechanism of the Relationship between Dietary Fat Intake and Risk for Cognitive Impairments in Humans? Nutrients 2019, 11, 1887.

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