Nutrition therapy provides the foundation for treatment of gestational diabetes (GDM), and has historically been based on restricting carbohydrate (CHO) intake. In this paper, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are reviewed to assess the effects of both low- and higher CHO nutrition approaches in GDM. The prevailing pattern across the evidence underscores that although CHO restriction improves glycemia at least in the short-term, similar outcomes could be achievable using less restrictive approaches that may not exacerbate IR. The quality of existing studies is limited, in part due to dietary non-adherence and confounding effects of treatment with insulin or oral medication. Recent evidence suggests that modified nutritional manipulation in GDM from usual intake, including but not limited to CHO restriction, improves maternal glucose and lowers infant birthweight. This creates a platform for future studies to further clarify the impact of multiple nutritional patterns in GDM on both maternal and infant outcomes.
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