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Open AccessArticle

Phenolic Composition of Artichoke Waste and Its Antioxidant Capacity on Differentiated Caco-2 Cells

1
Department of Sciences, InaMat, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Campus Arrosadía s/n, 31006 Pamplona, Spain
2
Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Veterinary Faculty, C/ Miguel Servet 177, University of Zaragoza, CIBERobn (ISCIII), IIS Aragón, IA2, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(8), 1723; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11081723
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 23 July 2019 / Accepted: 24 July 2019 / Published: 25 July 2019
Artichoke waste represents a huge amount of discarded material. This study presents the by-products (bracts, exterior leaves, and stalks) of the “Blanca de Tudela” artichoke variety as a potential source of phenolic compounds with promising antioxidant properties. Artichoke residues were subjected to different extraction processes, and the antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of the extracts were analyzed by spectrophotometric methods and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses, respectively. The most abundant polyphenols in artichoke waste were chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, and luteolin-7-O-glucoside. Minor quantities of cynarin, luteolin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, and naringenin-7-O-glucoside were also found. The antioxidant activity of the obtained extracts determined by ABTS [2, 2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)], DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrilhydracyl), and FRAP (Ferric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Power) was highly correlated with the total concentration of phenolic compounds. Chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, and luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, the most abundant compounds in 60% methanol extracts, are the components most responsible for the antioxidant activity of the artichoke waste extracts. The extract with the best antioxidant capacity was selected to assay its antioxidant potential on a model intestinal barrier. This action of the hydroxycinnamic acids on intestinal cells (Caco-2) was confirmed. In summary, artichoke waste may be considered a very interesting ingredient for food functionalization and for therapeutic purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: artichoke waste; valorization; polyphenols; antioxidant capacity; Caco-2 cells artichoke waste; valorization; polyphenols; antioxidant capacity; Caco-2 cells
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Jiménez-Moreno, N.; Cimminelli, M.J.; Volpe, F.; Ansó, R.; Esparza, I.; Mármol, I.; Rodríguez-Yoldi, M.J.; Ancín-Azpilicueta, C. Phenolic Composition of Artichoke Waste and Its Antioxidant Capacity on Differentiated Caco-2 Cells. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1723.

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