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Open AccessArticle

The Influence of Red Meat on Colorectal Cancer Occurrence Is Dependent on the Genetic Polymorphisms of S-Glutathione Transferase Genes

1
Department of Surgery and Surgical Nursery with a Research Laboratory and Genetic Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Jan Kochanowski University, 19, 5-317 Kielce, Poland
2
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Jan Kochanowski University, 19, 25-317 Kielce, Poland
3
Department of Molecular Diagnostic, Holy Cross Cancer Centre, 19, 25-734 Kielce, Poland
4
Department of General, Oncological and Endocrinological Surgery, Voivodeship Hospital, 19, 25-736 Kielce, Poland
5
Department of Probability Calculus and Statistics, Institute of Mathematics, Jan Kochanowski University, 19, 25-406 Kielce, Poland
6
Department of Physiology, Institute of Biology, Jan Kochanowski University, 19, 25-406 Kielce, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1682; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071682
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
Background: It is postulated that both individual genotype and environmental factors such as diet may modify the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). The influences of GST gene polymorphism and red meat intake on CRC occurrence in the Polish population were analyzed in this study. Methods: Genotyping was performed with the qPCR method. Results: A high frequency of meat consumption was associated with an over 2-fold increase in the risk of colorectal cancer odds ratio (OR) adjusted for sex and age = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI); 1.3–4.4). However, after analyzing the genetic profiles, in the absence of polymorphisms of all three analyzed genes, there was no association between a high frequency of meat consumption and the occurrence of CRC. In the case of GSTM1 gene polymorphism, the high frequency of meat consumption increased the risk of CRC by almost more than 4 times (OR adjusted for sex and age = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.6–9.1). For GSTP1 gene polymorphism, a 3-fold increase in CRC risk was observed with a high frequency of meat consumption (OR adjusted for sex and age = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.4–8.1). In the case of GSTT1 gene polymorphism, the increase in risk of CRC was not statistically significant (OR adjusted for sex and age = 1.9, 95% CI: 0.4–8.5). Conclusions: The frequency of red meat intake in non-smokers increases the risk of colon cancer in the case of GST gene polymorphisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: red meat; colorectal cancer; GSTT1; GSTM1; GSTP1 red meat; colorectal cancer; GSTT1; GSTM1; GSTP1
MDPI and ACS Style

Klusek, J.; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, A.; Kowalik, A.; Wawrzycka, I.; Chrapek, M.; Lewitowicz, P.; Radowicz-Chil, A.; Klusek, J.; Głuszek, S. The Influence of Red Meat on Colorectal Cancer Occurrence Is Dependent on the Genetic Polymorphisms of S-Glutathione Transferase Genes. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1682.

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