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Nut and Peanut Butter Consumption and Mortality in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study

1
Metabolic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
2
The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ 08628, USA
3
Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 14117-13135 Tehran, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071508
Received: 19 April 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 2 July 2019
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Abstract

Although previous studies have shown inverse associations between nut consumption and mortality, the associations between nut consumption and less common causes of mortality have not been investigated. Additionally, about 50% of peanut consumption in the US is through peanut butter but the association between peanut butter consumption and mortality has not been thoroughly evaluated. The National Institutes of Health-AARP (NIH-AARP) Diet and Health Study recruited 566,398 individuals aged 50–71 at baseline in 1995–1996. A food-frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate nut and peanut butter consumption. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for mortality using the non-consumers as reference groups and three categories of consumption. After excluding subjects with chronic diseases at baseline, there were 64,464 deaths with a median follow-up time of 15.5 years. We observed a significant inverse association between nut consumption and overall mortality (HR C4 vs C1 = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.76, 0.81, p ≤ 0.001). Nut consumption was significantly associated with reduced risk of cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory, infectious, renal and liver disease mortality but not with diabetes or Alzheimer’s disease mortality. We observed no significant associations between peanut butter consumption and all-cause (HR C4 vs C1 = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.98, 1.04, p = 0.001) and cause-specific mortality. In a middle-aged US population, nut intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality and certain types of cause-specific mortality. However, peanut butter consumption was not associated with differential mortality. View Full-Text
Keywords: nut; peanut butter; NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study; mortality; cancer; cardiovascular disease; respiratory disease; chronic liver disease nut; peanut butter; NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study; mortality; cancer; cardiovascular disease; respiratory disease; chronic liver disease
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Amba, V.; Murphy, G.; Etemadi, A.; Wang, S.; Abnet, C.C.; Hashemian, M. Nut and Peanut Butter Consumption and Mortality in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1508.

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