Next Article in Journal
Nutritional Properties and Consumer’s Acceptance of Provitamin A-Biofortified Amahewu Combined with Bambara (Vigna Subterranea) Flour
Previous Article in Journal
Monitoring Sodium Content in Processed Foods in Argentina 2017–2018: Compliance with National Legislation and Regional Targets
Open AccessArticle

The Association between Serum Magnesium Levels and Depression in an Adult Primary Care Population

1
Office of Clinical Trials Research, Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
2
Department of Medicine Quality Program, Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
3
Department of Psychiatry, Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
4
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Engineering and Mathematics, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
5
Department of Medicine, Larner College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(7), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11071475
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 13 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
Depression is common, places a large burden on the patient, their family and community, and is often difficult to treat. Magnesium supplementation is associated with improved depressive symptoms, but because the mechanism is unknown, it is unclear whether serum magnesium levels act as a biological predictor of the treatment outcome. Therefore, we sought to describe the relationship between serum magnesium and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ, a measure of depression) scores. A cross-sectional analysis of medical records from 3604 adults (mean age 62 years; 42% men) seen in primary care clinics between 2015 and 2018, with at least one completed PHQ were included. The relationship between serum magnesium and depression using univariate analyses showed a significant effect when measured by the PHQ-2 (−0.19 points/mg/dL; 95% CI −0.31, −0.07; P = 0.001) and the PHQ-9 (−0.93 points/mg/dL; 95% CI −1.81, −0.06; P = 0.037). This relationship was strengthened after adjusting for covariates (age, gender, race, time between serum magnesium and PHQ tests, and presence of diabetes and chronic kidney disease) (PHQ-2: −0.25 points/mg/dL; 95% CI −3.33, −0.09; P < 0.001 and PHQ-9: −1.09 95% CI −1.96 −0.21; P = 0.015). For adults seen in primary care, lower serum magnesium levels are associated with depressive symptoms, supporting the use of supplemental magnesium as therapy. Serum magnesium may help identify the biological mechanism of depressive symptoms and identify patients likely to respond to magnesium supplementation. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnesium; depression; primary care magnesium; depression; primary care
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Tarleton, E.K.; Kennedy, A.G.; Rose, G.L.; Crocker, A.; Littenberg, B. The Association between Serum Magnesium Levels and Depression in an Adult Primary Care Population. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1475.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop