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Comparison of the Effectiveness of Lifestyle Modification with Other Treatments on the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in People at High Risk: A Network Meta-Analysis

1
Teikyo University Graduate School of Public Health, 2-11-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan
2
Center for Medical Statistics, 2-9-6, Shiodome Italia-gai Siodome First 4F, Higashi Shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0021, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(6), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061373
Received: 1 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 16 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract

Background: Many clinical trials have been conducted to verify the effects of interventions for prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) using different treatments and outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of lifestyle modifications (LM) with other treatments in persons at high risk of T2D by a network meta-analysis (NMA). Methods: Searches were performed of PUBMED up to January 2018 to identify randomized controlled trials. The odds ratio (OR) with onset of T2D at 1 year in the intervention group (LM, dietary, exercise, or medication) versus a control group (standard treatments or placebo) were the effect sizes. Frequentist and Bayesian NMAs were conducted. Results: Forty-seven interventions and 12 treatments (20,113 participants) were used for the analyses. The OR in the LM was approximately 0.46 (95% CI: 0.33 to 0.61) times lower compared to the standard intervention by the Bayesian approach. The effects of LM compared to other treatments by indirect comparisons were not significant. Conclusions: This meta-analysis further strengthened the evidence that LM reduces the onset of T2D compared to standard and placebo interventions and appears to be at least as effective as nine other treatments in preventing T2D. View Full-Text
Keywords: systematic review; network meta-analysis; randomized controlled trial; high risk of type 2 diabetes; lifestyle modification; diet; medication systematic review; network meta-analysis; randomized controlled trial; high risk of type 2 diabetes; lifestyle modification; diet; medication
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Yamaoka, K.; Nemoto, A.; Tango, T. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Lifestyle Modification with Other Treatments on the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in People at High Risk: A Network Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1373.

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