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Vitamin D in Wild and Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar)—What Do We Know?

1
National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark
2
Bantry Marine Research Station, Gearhies, Bantry, P75 AX07 Cork, Ireland
3
Cork Centre for Vitamin D and Nutrition Research, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, T12 Y337 Cork, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 982; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11050982
Received: 24 March 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 29 April 2019
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Abstract

Salmon have been widely publicized as a good dietary source of vitamin D, but recent data points to large variation in vitamin D content and differences between wild and farmed salmon. We aimed to: (1) investigate the content of vitamin D in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in wild species caught in two different waters, (2) perform a 12-week feeding trial in farmed Salmo salar with 270–1440 µg vitamin D3/kg feed (4–20 times maximum level in the EU) and (3) conduct a review for the published data on the content of vitamin D in salmonids. Content of vitamin D3 in the fillet from wild salmon caught in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea was significantly different (p < 0.05), being 18.5 ± 4.6 µg/100 g and 9.4 ± 1.9 µg/100 g, respectively. In the farmed salmon the content ranged from 2.9 ± 0.7 µg vitamin D3/100 g to 9.5 ± 0.7 µg vitamin D3/100 g. Data from 2018 shows that farmed salmon contained 2.3–7.3 µg vitamin D3/100 g. Information on the content of vitamin D in wild and farmed salmonids is very limited, which calls for further research to ensure a sustainable production of salmon with adequate vitamin D. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; vitamin D3; wild; farmed; aquaculture; salmon; salmonids; Salmo salar vitamin D; vitamin D3; wild; farmed; aquaculture; salmon; salmonids; Salmo salar
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Jakobsen, J.; Smith, C.; Bysted, A.; Cashman, K.D. Vitamin D in Wild and Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar)—What Do We Know? Nutrients 2019, 11, 982.

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