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Can Gut Microbiota Composition Predict Response to Dietary Treatments?

1
Department of Dietetics, Nutrition & Sport, School of Allied Health Human Services & Sport, La Trobe University, 3086 Melbourne, Australia
2
Human Microbiome Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00014 HY Helsinki, Finland
3
Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre and NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre at Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, the University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
4
Food and Mood Centre, IMPACT SRC, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3216, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051134
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 20 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Nutrition-1)
Dietary intervention is a challenge in clinical practice because of inter-individual variability in clinical response. Gut microbiota is mechanistically relevant for a number of disease states and consequently has been incorporated as a key variable in personalised nutrition models within the research context. This paper aims to review the evidence related to the predictive capacity of baseline microbiota for clinical response to dietary intervention in two specific health conditions, namely, obesity and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Clinical trials and larger predictive modelling studies were identified and critically evaluated. The findings reveal inconsistent evidence to support baseline microbiota as an accurate predictor of weight loss or glycaemic response in obesity, or as a predictor of symptom improvement in irritable bowel syndrome, in dietary intervention trials. Despite advancement in quantification methodologies, research in this area remains challenging and larger scale studies are needed until personalised nutrition is realistically achievable and can be translated to clinical practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: personalised nutrition; microbiota; dietary intervention; obesity; irritable bowel syndrome; gastrointestinal symptoms personalised nutrition; microbiota; dietary intervention; obesity; irritable bowel syndrome; gastrointestinal symptoms
MDPI and ACS Style

Biesiekierski, J.R.; Jalanka, J.; Staudacher, H.M. Can Gut Microbiota Composition Predict Response to Dietary Treatments? Nutrients 2019, 11, 1134.

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