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Development of a Technology-Assisted Food Frequency Questionnaire for Elementary and Middle School Children: Findings from a Pilot Study

1
Division of Public Health Nutrition, School of Global Public Health, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
2
Department of Nutrition and Food Studies, Steinhardt School, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
3
Department of Applied Statistics, Social Science, and Humanities, Steinhardt School, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA
4
Viocare Nutrition Software Solutions for Healthcare and Research, Princeton, NJ 08542, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051103
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 10 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract

Background: This pilot study collected preliminary data for the modification of the VioScreen Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), an adult-validated, self-administered, web-based dietary assessment tool for use in older children. Methods: A convenience sample of 55 children, aged 6–14 years, completed the VioScreen FFQ and 3-day diet record (reference standard). Caregivers completed a short sociodemographic questionnaire. Reported dietary intakes from the VioScreen FFQ and 3-day diet record were calculated using standard nutrient databases, and descriptive statistics were used to examine differences in food/beverage items and portion sizes between the two methods. Informal focus groups obtained user feedback and identified components of the VioScreen FFQ that required modifications. Results: The highest de-attenuated Pearson correlation coefficients between the VioScreen FFQ and 3-day diet record were observed for iron (r = 0.69), saturated fat (r = 0.59), and vegetables (r = 0.56), and the lowest were for whole grains (r = 0.11) and vitamin C (r = 0.16). Qualitative feedback was overall positive, and six technological modifications were identified. Conclusion: Findings from this pilot study provided valuable information on the process of evaluating the use of the VioScreen FFQ among older children, and will inform the future development of a modified version for this population. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary assessment; food frequency questionnaire; children; adolescents; web-based dietary assessment; food frequency questionnaire; children; adolescents; web-based
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Deierlein, A.L.; Bihuniak, J.D.; Nagi, E.; Litvak, J.; Victoria, C.; Braune, T.; Weiss, R.; Parekh, N. Development of a Technology-Assisted Food Frequency Questionnaire for Elementary and Middle School Children: Findings from a Pilot Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1103.

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