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Impact of Supplementary Amino Acids, Micronutrients, and Overall Diet on Glutathione Homeostasis

Department of Foods and Nutrition, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1056;
Received: 13 April 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glutathione Metabolism)
PDF [307 KB, uploaded 11 May 2019]


Glutathione (GSH) is a critical endogenous antioxidant found in all eukaryotic cells. Higher GSH concentrations protect against cellular damage, tissue degeneration, and disease progression in various models, so there is considerable interest in developing interventions that augment GSH biosynthesis. Oral GSH supplementation is not the most efficient option due to the enzymatic degradation of ingested GSH within the intestine by γ-glutamyltransferase, but supplementation of its component amino acids—cysteine, glycine, and glutamate—enhances tissue GSH synthesis. Furthermore, supplementation with some non-precursor amino acids and micronutrients appears to influence the redox status of GSH and related antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, lowering systemic oxidative stress and slowing the rate of tissue deterioration. In this review, the effects of oral supplementation of amino acids and micronutrients on GSH metabolism are evaluated. And since specific dietary patterns and diets are being prescribed as first-line therapeutics for conditions such as hypertension and diabetes, the impact of overall diets on GSH homeostasis is also assessed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Glutathione; amino acids; micronutrients; supplementation; homeostasis Glutathione; amino acids; micronutrients; supplementation; homeostasis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Gould, R.L.; Pazdro, R. Impact of Supplementary Amino Acids, Micronutrients, and Overall Diet on Glutathione Homeostasis. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1056.

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