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Epidemiology of Cow’s Milk Allergy

Elliot and Roslyn Jaffe Food Allergy Institute, Division of Allergy, Department of Pediatrics, Kravis Children’s Hospital, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1051;
Received: 16 April 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cow's Milk and Allergy)
PDF [237 KB, uploaded 10 May 2019]


Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated cow’s milk allergy (CMA) is one of the most common food allergies in infants and young children. CMA can result in anaphylactic reactions, and has long term implications on growth and nutrition. There are several studies in diverse populations assessing the epidemiology of CMA. However, assessment is complicated by the presence of other immune-mediated reactions to cow’s milk. These include non-IgE and mixed (IgE and non-IgE) reactions and common non-immune mediated reactions, such as lactose intolerance. Estimates of prevalence and population-level patterns are further complicated by the natural history of CMA (given its relatively high rate of resolution) and variation in phenotype (with a large proportion of patients able to tolerate baked cow’s milk). Prevalence, natural history, demographic patterns, and long-term outcomes of CMA have been explored in several disparate populations over the past 30 to 40 years, with differences seen based on the method of outcome assessment, study population, time period, and geographic region. The primary aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology of CMA. The review also briefly discusses topics related to prevalence studies and specific implications of CMA, including severity, natural course, nutritional impact, and risk factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: cow’s milk allergy; epidemiology; natural history; prevalence cow’s milk allergy; epidemiology; natural history; prevalence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Flom, J.D.; Sicherer, S.H. Epidemiology of Cow’s Milk Allergy. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1051.

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