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The Immunomodulatory Properties of Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Probiotics: A Novel Approach for the Management of Gastrointestinal Diseases

1
CIBER-EHD, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Biomedical Research (CIBM), University of Granada, Avenida del Conocimiento s/n 18071-Granada, Spain
2
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria de Granada (ibs.GRANADA), Granada 18012, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1038; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051038
Received: 26 March 2019 / Revised: 5 May 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
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Abstract

Probiotics, included in functional foods, nutritional supplements, or nutraceuticals, exhibit different beneficial effects on gut function. They are extensively used to improve the digestive processes as well as reduce the symptoms and progression of different diseases. Probiotics have shown to improve dysbiosis and modulate the immune response of the host by interacting with different cell types. Probiotics and the host can interact in a direct way, but it is becoming apparent that communication occurs also through extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from probiotics. EVs are key for bacteria–bacteria and bacteria–host interactions, since they carry a wide variety of components that can modulate different signaling pathways, including those involved in the immune response. Interestingly, EVs are recently starting to be considered as an alternative to probiotics in those cases for which the use of live bacteria could be dangerous, such as immunocompromised individuals or situations where the intestinal barrier is impaired. EVs can spread through the mucus layer and interact with the host, avoiding the risk of sepsis. This review summarizes the existing knowledge about EVs from different probiotic strains, their properties, and their potential use for the prevention or treatment of different gastrointestinal diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; probiotics; gastrointestinal diseases; microbiota; TLR signaling; tight junctions extracellular vesicles; probiotics; gastrointestinal diseases; microbiota; TLR signaling; tight junctions
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Molina-Tijeras, J.A.; Gálvez, J.; Rodríguez-Cabezas, M.E. The Immunomodulatory Properties of Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Probiotics: A Novel Approach for the Management of Gastrointestinal Diseases. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1038.

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