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Race/Ethnicity, Enrichment/Fortification, and Dietary Supplementation in the U.S. Population, NHANES 2009–2012

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Department of Public Health Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
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Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
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Departments of Medicine and Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(5), 1005; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11051005
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 19 April 2019 / Accepted: 25 April 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
In the United States (U.S.), food fortification and/or enrichment and dietary supplement (DS) use impacts nutrient intakes. Our aim was to examine race/ethnicity and income (Poverty Income Ratio, PIR) differences in meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes based on estimated dietary intakes among the U.S. population age ≥2 years (n = 16,975). Two 24-hour recalls from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2009–2012 were used to estimate the intake of 15 nutrients as naturally occurring, enriched/fortified, and plus DSs. Across racial/ethnic groups and within PIR categories, significant differences were observed in the %< Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamin A following enrichment/fortification (E/F) and for vitamin B12 and riboflavin following both E/F and DS use when comparing non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and the other race/ethnicity group to non-Hispanic whites. The %<EAR for iron and calcium also differed depending on race/ethnicity within PIR category (p < 0.05). The %<EAR was significantly lower for vitamin D after E/F for Hispanics, and after E/F combined with DS use for vitamins C and B6 for Hispanics and the other race/ethnicity group than non-Hispanic whites. Non-Hispanic blacks were inadequate in all nutrients examined except vitamin C based on the %<EAR than individuals of other races/ethnicities. Differences in the tolerable upper intake level (UL) of nutrients, especially folate and zinc, also varied by race/ethnicity and PIR category. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary reference intake; socioeconomic status dietary reference intake; socioeconomic status
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Malek, A.M.; Newman, J.C.; Hunt, K.J.; Marriott, B.P. Race/Ethnicity, Enrichment/Fortification, and Dietary Supplementation in the U.S. Population, NHANES 2009–2012. Nutrients 2019, 11, 1005.

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