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Development of a Choline Database to Estimate Australian Population Intakes

Smart Foods Centre, School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 913;
Received: 19 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 22 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition Informatics)
PDF [454 KB, uploaded 26 April 2019]


The AUSNUT 2011–13 food composition database was expanded to include Australian choline values. The development began with a systematic literature review of published studies. Analytical data from the food studies were extracted and aligned with their equivalent AUSNUT food identification code. Global food composition databases containing choline values were matched to the remaining AUSNUT food codes, following the FAO INFOODS food matching guidelines, including adjustments for moisture and protein composition. Composite foods, and not further-specified foods, were developed using the Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) recipe files. The completed choline database was then employed to analyse the Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011–12, with population and sampling weightings applied. Survey respondents were classified into categories based on their level of choline intake and compared with the Australian Adequate Intake levels. Food sources of intake were also explored. Multiple linear regression models were developed for food group contributors to choline intake. Mean choline intakes varied from 151.50 mg for pregnant 14–18 years old, to 310.54 mg for 19–64 year old males. Less than 10% of the population by age and gender were achieving the Adequate Intake for choline. Eggs and their contributing food groups were the top ranked food sources of choline for the population. View Full-Text
Keywords: food composition; national survey; food intake; choline; informatics food composition; national survey; food intake; choline; informatics

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Probst, Y.; Guan, V.; Neale, E. Development of a Choline Database to Estimate Australian Population Intakes. Nutrients 2019, 11, 913.

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