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Combined Effect of Arginine, Valine, and Serine on Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study

Glutamine as an Anti-Fatigue Amino Acid in Sports Nutrition

Department of Food and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes 580, São Paulo 05508-000, Brazil
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, University of São Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, São Paulo 01246-904, Brazil
Food Research Center (FoRC), CEPID-FAPESP, Research Innovation and Dissemination Centers São Paulo Research Foundation, São Paulo 05468-140, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 863;
Received: 7 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid widely used in sports nutrition, especially because of its immunomodulatory role. Notwithstanding, glutamine plays several other biological functions, such as cell proliferation, energy production, glycogenesis, ammonia buffering, maintenance of the acid-base balance, among others. Thus, this amino acid began to be investigated in sports nutrition beyond its effect on the immune system, attributing to glutamine various properties, such as an anti-fatigue role. Considering that the ergogenic potential of this amino acid is still not completely known, this review aimed to address the main properties by which glutamine could delay fatigue, as well as the effects of glutamine supplementation, alone or associated with other nutrients, on fatigue markers and performance in the context of physical exercise. PubMed database was selected to examine the literature, using the keywords combination “glutamine” and “fatigue”. Fifty-five studies met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated in this integrative literature review. Most of the studies evaluated observed that glutamine supplementation improved some fatigue markers, such as increased glycogen synthesis and reduced ammonia accumulation, but this intervention did not increase physical performance. Thus, despite improving some fatigue parameters, glutamine supplementation seems to have limited effects on performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: amino acid; muscle fatigue; central fatigue; performance; immune system; hydration amino acid; muscle fatigue; central fatigue; performance; immune system; hydration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Coqueiro, A.Y.; Rogero, M.M.; Tirapegui, J. Glutamine as an Anti-Fatigue Amino Acid in Sports Nutrition. Nutrients 2019, 11, 863.

AMA Style

Coqueiro AY, Rogero MM, Tirapegui J. Glutamine as an Anti-Fatigue Amino Acid in Sports Nutrition. Nutrients. 2019; 11(4):863.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Coqueiro, Audrey Yule, Marcelo Macedo Rogero, and Julio Tirapegui. 2019. "Glutamine as an Anti-Fatigue Amino Acid in Sports Nutrition" Nutrients 11, no. 4: 863.

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