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Nutrients 2019, 11(4), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040817

Preliminary Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake in Eye Care Practice

Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3010 Victoria, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 5 April 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 11 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Eye Health)
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Abstract

Clinical recommendations relating to dietary omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFAs) should consider an individual’s baseline intake. The time, cost, and practicality constraints of current techniques for quantifying omega-3 levels limit the feasibility of applying these methods in some settings, such as eye care practice. This preliminary validation study, involving 40 adults, sought to assess the validity of a novel questionnaire, the Clinical Omega-3 Dietary Survey (CODS), for rapidly assessing long-chain omega-3 intake. Estimated dietary intakes of long-chain omega-3s from CODS correlated with the validated Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiology Studies (DQES), Version 3.2, (Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Australia) and quantitative assays from dried blood spot (DBS) testing. The ‘method of triads’ model was used to estimate a validity coefficient (ρ) for the relationship between the CODS and an estimated “true” intake of long-chain omega-3 EFAs. The CODS had high validity for estimating the ρ (95% Confidence Interval [CI]) for total long-chain omega-3 EFAs 0.77 (0.31–0.98), docosahexaenoic acid 0.86 (0.54–0.99) and docosapentaenoic acid 0.72 (0.14–0.97), and it had moderate validity for estimating eicosapentaenoic acid 0.57 (0.21–0.93). The total long-chain omega-3 EFAs estimated using the CODS correlated with the Omega-3 index (r = 0.37, p = 0.018) quantified using the DBS biomarker. The CODS is a novel tool that can be administered rapidly and easily, to estimate long-chain omega-3 sufficiency in clinical settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: omega-3; fatty acid; diet; dietary assessment; clinical survey; eye disease; dry eye; age-related macular degeneration; food frequency questionnaire; CODS omega-3; fatty acid; diet; dietary assessment; clinical survey; eye disease; dry eye; age-related macular degeneration; food frequency questionnaire; CODS
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Zhang, A.C.; Downie, L.E. Preliminary Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake in Eye Care Practice. Nutrients 2019, 11, 817.

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