In 2005, US water intake recommendations were based on analyses of Nutrition Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES) III data that examined if hydration classification varied by water intake and estimated the median water intake associated with hydration in persons aged 19–30. Given the upcoming 2020–2025 Dietary Guidelines review, this analysis addressed the same two aims with 2009–2012 NHANES data. Methods were updated by defining hydration criteria in terms of multiple measures (serum sodium 135–144 mmol/L and urine osmolality < 500 mmol/kg), expressing water intake as ml/kg, distinguishing plain water intake (PWI) from total water intake (TWI), using weighted age- and sex-specific multivariable models to control for determinants of water intake requirements, and selecting two study samples (the non-acutely ill US population and a sub-group without selected chronic disease risk factors). In the US population and sub-group, the relative risk (RR) of meeting the hydration criteria was significantly greater for individuals with TWI ≥ 45 mL/kg or PWI ≥ 20 mL/kg (for the US population 19–50 years of age: adjusted RR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.10–1.68 for males; adjusted RR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.49–1.95 for females. For the sub-group 51–70 years of age: adjusted RR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.15–4.18 for males; adjusted RR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.18–3.40 for females). The median (SE) TWI and PWI associated with meeting the hydration criteria for males and females 19–50 years of age were 42 (2) mL/kg and 14 (1) mL/kg and 43 (2) mL/kg and 16 (1) mL/kg, respectively. The significant association between water intake and hydration classification differs from the null association underlying the 2005 water intake recommendations and may lead to different reasoning and inferences for the 2020–2025 Dietary Guidelines.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited