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Dietary Diversity Was Positively Associated with Psychological Resilience among Elders: A Population-Based Study

Division of Non-Communicable Diseases Control and Community Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China
Department of Sociology & Anthropology, Department of Human Development & Family Studies, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA
Duke Molecular Physiology Institute and Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27701, USA
Institute of Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100021, China
Center for the study of Aging and Human Development and the Geriatric Division of School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC 27701, USA
Center for Healthy Aging and Development Studies, National School of Development, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 650;
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 10 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 18 March 2019
PDF [1447 KB, uploaded 24 March 2019]


The association between dietary diversity (DD) and psychological resilience among older people is an underdeveloped area of research. This cross-sectional study explored the associations of DD with psychological resilience among 8571 community-based elderly individuals. The intake frequencies of food groups were collected, and dietary diversity was assessed based on the mean DD score. Psychological resilience was assessed using a simplified resilience score (SRS). Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression and logistic regression models. Poor DD was significantly associated with psychological resilience, with a β (95% CI) of −0.94 (−1.07, −0.81) for the SRS (p < 0.01) and an odds ratio (95% CI) of 1.83 (1.66, 2.01) for low SRS status. The interaction effects of age with DD were observed for the SRS (p < 0.001) and low SRS status (p < 0.001). Based on separate analyses by age group, the association of a low SRS with poor DD was more prominent in the younger elderly than the oldest old, with OR (95% CI) 2.32 (1.96, 2.74) and 1.61 (1.43, 1.82), respectively. Compared with younger participants with good DD, the risk of a low SRS was greater for younger participants with poor DD, the oldest old with good DD, and the oldest old with poor DD, with OR (95% CI) 2.39 (2.02, 2.81), 1.28 (1.09, 1.51), and 2.03 (1.72, 2.39), respectively. The greatest contribution to DD was from a high consumption of vegetables, fruits, and nuts. Our study suggested that poor DD was associated with a low psychological resilience among the Chinese elderly, especially the younger elderly. These findings suggest that augmentation of DD might promote psychological resilience. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary diversity; psychological resilience; elderly; oldest old dietary diversity; psychological resilience; elderly; oldest old

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Yin, Z.; Brasher, M.S.; Kraus, V.B.; Lv, Y.; Shi, X.; Zeng, Y. Dietary Diversity Was Positively Associated with Psychological Resilience among Elders: A Population-Based Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 650.

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