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The Effects of Vegetarian and Vegan Diet during Pregnancy on the Health of Mothers and Offspring

1
Neonatology Unit, Hospital Clinic-Maternitat, ICGON, BCNatal, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
2
Grup de Recerca Infancia i Entorn (GRIE), Institut d’investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), 08028 Barcelona, Spain
3
BCNatal | Barcelona Center for Maternal Fetal and Neonatal Medicine Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030557
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Pregnancy Nutrition in Maternal and Offspring Health)
Vegetarian and vegan diets have increased worldwide in the last decades, according to the knowledge that they might prevent coronary heart disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Althought plant-based diets are at risk of nutritional deficiencies such as proteins, iron, vitamin D, calcium, iodine, omega-3, and vitamin B12, the available evidence shows that well planned vegetarian and vegan diets may be considered safe during pregnancy and lactation, but they require a strong awareness for a balanced intake of key nutrients. A review of the scientific literature in this field was performed, focusing specifically on observational studies in humans, in order to investigate protective effects elicited by maternal diets enriched in plant-derived foods and possible unfavorable outcomes related to micronutrients deficiencies and their impact on fetal development. A design of pregestational nutrition intervention is required in order to avoid maternal undernutrition and consequent impaired fetal growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: vegetarian diets; vegan diets; plant-based diets; nutrition; pregnancy; breastfeeding; human milk; micronutrients; fetal development vegetarian diets; vegan diets; plant-based diets; nutrition; pregnancy; breastfeeding; human milk; micronutrients; fetal development
MDPI and ACS Style

Sebastiani, G.; Herranz Barbero, A.; Borrás-Novell, C.; Alsina Casanova, M.; Aldecoa-Bilbao, V.; Andreu-Fernández, V.; Pascual Tutusaus, M.; Ferrero Martínez, S.; Gómez Roig, M.D.; García-Algar, O. The Effects of Vegetarian and Vegan Diet during Pregnancy on the Health of Mothers and Offspring. Nutrients 2019, 11, 557.

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