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Nutrients 2019, 11(3), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11030523

Types of Carbohydrates Intake during Pregnancy and Frequency of a Small for Gestational Age Newborn: A Case-Control Study

1
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs.GRANADA, Complejo Hospitales Universitarios de Granada/Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
4
Department of Nursing, University of Jaén, Campus de Las Lagunillas s/n, Building B3 Office 266, 23071 Jaén, Spain
5
Division of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Jaen, 23071 Jaen, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 25 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
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Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between consumption of different types of carbohydrates (CHO) during pregnancy and the risk of having a small for gestational age (SGA) newborn. A retrospective matched case–control design was carried out with a total of 518 mother-offspring pairs. A total of 137 validated items were included in the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate crude odds ratios (cORs) and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Having more than 75 g/day of brown bread showed an inverse association with SGA (aOR = 0.64, CI 0.43–0.96). In contrast, an intake of industrial sweets more than once a day (aOR = 2.70, CI 1.42–5.13), or even 2–6 times a week (aOR = 1.84, CI 1.20–2.82), increased the odds of having a SGA newborn. During pregnancy, the higher the increase of wholegrain cereal and bread, the lower the possibility of having a SGA newborn, but the opposite occurred with refined sugar products—just consuming industrial bakery products or pastries twice a week increased the odds of having an SGA infant. Case–control studies cannot verify causality and only show associations, which may reflect residual confusion due to the presence of unknown factors. It is possible that a high consumption of sugary foods is a marker of a generally poor lifestyle. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbohydrates; pregnancy; refined carbohydrates; complex carbohydrates; small for gestational age carbohydrates; pregnancy; refined carbohydrates; complex carbohydrates; small for gestational age
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Amezcua-Prieto, C.; Martínez-Galiano, J.M.; Cano-Ibáñez, N.; Olmedo-Requena, R.; Bueno-Cavanillas, A.; Delgado-Rodríguez, M. Types of Carbohydrates Intake during Pregnancy and Frequency of a Small for Gestational Age Newborn: A Case-Control Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 523.

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