Tryptophan-Tyrosine Dipeptide, the Core Sequence of β-Lactolin, Improves Memory by Modulating the Dopamine System
AbstractTryptophan-tyrosine (WY)-related peptides including the β-lactopeptide of the glycine-threonine-tryptophan-tyrosine peptide, β-lactolin, improve spatial memory. However, whether and how the WY dipeptide as the core sequence in WY-related peptides improves memory functions has not been investigated. This study assessed the pharmacological effects of the WY dipeptide on memory impairment to elucidate the mechanisms. Here, we showed that oral administration of dipeptides of WY, tryptophan-methionine (WM), tryptophan-valine, tryptophan-leucine, and tryptophan-phenylalanine improved spontaneous alternation of the Y-maze test in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice. In contrast, tyrosine-tryptophan, methionine-tryptophan, tryptophan, tyrosine, and methionine had no effect. These results indicated that the conformation of dipeptides with N-terminal tryptophan is required for their memory improving effects. WY dipeptide inhibited the monoamine oxidase B activity in vitro and increased dopamine levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, whereas tryptophan did not cause these effects. In addition, the treatment with SCH-23390, a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist, and the knockdown of the hippocampal dopamine D1 receptor partially attenuated the memory improvement induced by the WY dipeptide. Importantly, WY dipeptide improved the spontaneous alternations of the Y-maze test in aged mice. These results suggest that the WY dipeptide restores memory impairments by augmenting dopaminergic activity. The development of supplements rich in these peptides might help to prevent age-related cognitive decline. View Full-Text
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Ano, Y.; Ayabe, T.; Ohya, R.; Kondo, K.; Kitaoka, S.; Furuyashiki, T. Tryptophan-Tyrosine Dipeptide, the Core Sequence of β-Lactolin, Improves Memory by Modulating the Dopamine System. Nutrients 2019, 11, 348.
Ano Y, Ayabe T, Ohya R, Kondo K, Kitaoka S, Furuyashiki T. Tryptophan-Tyrosine Dipeptide, the Core Sequence of β-Lactolin, Improves Memory by Modulating the Dopamine System. Nutrients. 2019; 11(2):348.Chicago/Turabian Style
Ano, Yasuhisa; Ayabe, Tatsuhiro; Ohya, Rena; Kondo, Keiji; Kitaoka, Shiho; Furuyashiki, Tomoyuki. 2019. "Tryptophan-Tyrosine Dipeptide, the Core Sequence of β-Lactolin, Improves Memory by Modulating the Dopamine System." Nutrients 11, no. 2: 348.
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