Next Article in Journal
Variability of Water-Soluble Forms of Choline Concentrations in Human Milk during Storage, after Pasteurization, and among Women
Previous Article in Journal
The Acute and Chronic Cognitive and Cerebral Blood-Flow Effects of Nepalese Pepper (Zanthoxylum armatum DC.) Extract—A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study in Healthy Humans
Open AccessArticle

Ellagic Acid Inhibits Extracellular Acidity-Induced Invasiveness and Expression of COX1, COX2, Snail, Twist 1, and c-myc in Gastric Carcinoma Cells

by Sung-Chul Lim 1,2, Hyoin Hwang 2,3 and Song Iy Han 4,*
1
Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452, Korea
2
BioBank, Chosun University Hospital, Gwangju 61452, Korea
3
Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452, Korea
4
Division of Premedical Science, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(12), 3023; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11123023
Received: 6 November 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 7 December 2019 / Published: 10 December 2019
Extracellular acidity has been implicated in enhanced malignancy and metastatic features in various cancer cells. Gastric cancer cell lines (AGS and SNU601) maintained in an acidic medium have increased motility and invasiveness. In this study, we investigated the effect of ellagic acid, a plant-derived phenolic compound, on the acidity-promoted migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. Treating cells maintained in acidic medium with ellagic acid inhibited acidity-mediated migration and invasion, and reduced the expression of MMP7 and MMP9. Examining regulatory factors contributing to the acidity-mediated invasiveness, we found that an acidic pH increased the expression of COX1 and COX2; importantly, expression decreased under the ellagic acid treatment. The general COX inhibitor, sulindac, also decreased acidity-mediated invasion and expression of MMP7 and MMP9. In addition, acidity increased the mRNA protein expression of transcription factors snail, twist1, and c-myc; these were also reduced by ellagic acid. Together, these results suggest that ellagic acid suppresses acidity-enhanced migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells via inhibition of the expression of multiple factors (COX1, COX2, snail, twist1, and c-myc); for this reason, it may be an effective agent for cancer treatment under acidosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular acidity; ellagic acid; invasion extracellular acidity; ellagic acid; invasion
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lim, S.-C.; Hwang, H.; Han, S.I. Ellagic Acid Inhibits Extracellular Acidity-Induced Invasiveness and Expression of COX1, COX2, Snail, Twist 1, and c-myc in Gastric Carcinoma Cells. Nutrients 2019, 11, 3023.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop