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The Impact of a Large Bolus Dose of l-leucine and l-isoleucine on Enteroendocrine and Pancreatic Hormones, and Glycemia in Healthy, Inactive Adults

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Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry Lab, Department of Kinesiology, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX 78414, USA
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Exercise and Thermal Integrative Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Sports Management, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA
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Nutrition Obesity Research Center, University of Alabama-Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
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Exercise and Biochemical Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Health, Human Performance, Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76707, USA
5
Exercise Physiology and Biochemistry Lab, Department of Kinesiology, Texas Woman’s University, Denton, TX 76204, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2650; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112650
Received: 29 September 2019 / Revised: 15 October 2019 / Accepted: 31 October 2019 / Published: 4 November 2019
Background: The ingestion of whey protein and amino acids with carbohydrate (CHO) enhances the release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent-insulinotropic peptide (GIP) that promote insulin secretion. It is unknown if L-isoleucine (Ile) and L-leucine (Leu) have this same effect. The purpose of this study was to examine how Ile and Leu influence both GLP-1 and GIP, subsequent pancreatic hormones, and glycemia in healthy, inactive adults. Methods: Twelve adults (6F/6M; age 27.4 ± 2 years; BMI 26.3 ± 2 kg/m2; lean body mass 53.2 ± 5 kg; body fat 34.1 ± 3%) completed four conditions in a randomized, cross-over fashion. Treatments standardized (0.3 g/kg·LBM−1) (1) Leu, (2) Ile, (3) Equal (1:1 g) of Leu + Ile, and (4) placebo (Pla, 3.5 g inert stevia) ingested 30 min prior to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Samples of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, GIPTotal, and GLP-1Active were assessed. Results: A treatment (p = 0.01) effect comparing Ile vs. Leu (p = 0.02) in GIPTotal. Area under the curve showed an increase in GIPTotal from Ile compared to Leu and Pla (p = 0.03). No effect was found on GLP-1. The ingestion of Ile prior to CHO augmented GIP concentration greater than Leu or Pla. No correlation was found between GIP, insulin, and glucose between conditions. Conclusions: Ile impacts GIP concentration, which did not relate to either insulin or glucose concentrations. Neither Ile, nor Leu seem to have an effect on hyperglycemia ingested prior to a CHO drink. View Full-Text
Keywords: L-isoleucine; L-leucine; glucagon-like peptide 1; glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide; glycemia L-isoleucine; L-leucine; glucagon-like peptide 1; glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide; glycemia
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Newmire, D.E.; Rivas, E.; Deemer, S.E.; Willoughby, D.S.; Ben-Ezra, V. The Impact of a Large Bolus Dose of l-leucine and l-isoleucine on Enteroendocrine and Pancreatic Hormones, and Glycemia in Healthy, Inactive Adults. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2650.

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