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Article

Physical Activity and/or High Protein Intake Maintains Fat-Free Mass in Older People with Mild Disability; the Fukuoka Island City Study: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
Graduate School of Sports and Health Science, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan
2
Institute for Physical Activity, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan
3
Department of Nutrition and Metabolism, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health, and Nutrition, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan
4
Faculty of Sports and Health Science, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, 8-19-1 Nanakuma Jonan-ku, Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan
5
Center for Education in Liberal Arts and Sciences, Osaka University, 1-17 Machikaneyamachou, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
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Department of Food and Health Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, 3-1-100 Tsukide, Higashi-ku, Kumamoto 862-8502, Japan
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Faculty of Health and Sports Science, Doshisha University, 1-3 Miyakodani Tatara, Kyotanabe-shi, Kyoto 610-0394, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Deceased on 23 April 2018.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2595; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112595
Received: 27 September 2019 / Revised: 21 October 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 29 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Physical Activity for Human Health)
Body composition changes with age, with fat mass (FM) increasing and fat-free mass (FFM) decreasing. Higher physical activity and high or adequate protein intake are thought to be beneficial in preventing the loss of skeletal muscle mass in the elderly. We aimed to investigate the relationships between physical activity, protein intake, and FFM in older people with mild disability. Total energy expenditure (TEE) under free-living conditions was assessed using the doubly-labelled water (DLW) method, and physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. Dietary intake was assessed using a self-recorded food intake diary during the DLW period. Percent FFM was significantly positively correlated with protein intake and physical activity level (PAL) after adjustment for age and sex (protein intake r = 0.652, p < 0.001, PAL r = 0.345, p = 0.011). In multiple linear regression analysis, when PAL, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), or protein intake were included, 31%, 32%, and 55%, respectively, of the variation in %FFM was explained. Moreover, the addition of both PAL/MVPA and protein intake explained 61%/60%, respectively, of the variation in %FFM. Either protein intake above the currently recommended level or higher levels of physical activity would be beneficial for the maintenance of high %FFM. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical activity level; body composition; protein intake; doubly labelled water; mild disability physical activity level; body composition; protein intake; doubly labelled water; mild disability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Takae, R.; Hatamoto, Y.; Yasukata, J.; Kose, Y.; Komiyama, T.; Ikenaga, M.; Yoshimura, E.; Yamada, Y.; Ebine, N.; Higaki, Y.; Tanaka, H. Physical Activity and/or High Protein Intake Maintains Fat-Free Mass in Older People with Mild Disability; the Fukuoka Island City Study: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2595. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112595

AMA Style

Takae R, Hatamoto Y, Yasukata J, Kose Y, Komiyama T, Ikenaga M, Yoshimura E, Yamada Y, Ebine N, Higaki Y, Tanaka H. Physical Activity and/or High Protein Intake Maintains Fat-Free Mass in Older People with Mild Disability; the Fukuoka Island City Study: A Cross-Sectional Study. Nutrients. 2019; 11(11):2595. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112595

Chicago/Turabian Style

Takae, Rie, Yoichi Hatamoto, Jun Yasukata, Yujiro Kose, Takaaki Komiyama, Masahiro Ikenaga, Eiichi Yoshimura, Yosuke Yamada, Naoyuki Ebine, Yasuki Higaki, and Hiroaki Tanaka. 2019. "Physical Activity and/or High Protein Intake Maintains Fat-Free Mass in Older People with Mild Disability; the Fukuoka Island City Study: A Cross-Sectional Study" Nutrients 11, no. 11: 2595. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112595

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