Next Article in Journal
The Association of Disease Activity, BMI and Phase Angle with Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with IBD
Previous Article in Journal
Free Sugar Content in Pre-Packaged Products: Does Voluntary Product Reformulation Work in Practice?
Open AccessReview

The Association between Sleep Duration and Metabolic Syndrome: The NHANES 2013/2014

1
Department of Surgery, Westchester Medical Center, School of Medicine, New York Medical College, New York, NY 10595, USA
2
Henry M Jackson Foundation for the advancement of Military Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA
3
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47404, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2582; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112582
Received: 27 August 2019 / Revised: 10 October 2019 / Accepted: 15 October 2019 / Published: 26 October 2019
Background: We aimed to assess the association of sleep with metabolic syndrome in the 2013/2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods: Sample size included 2737 out of 2013 and 2014 NHANES surveys. Cross-sectional study of metabolic syndrome and sleep duration was conducted. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to NCEP ATPIII (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III) criteria. Metabolic syndrome severity score was calculated based on actual measurement of each component, adjusted for sex and race. The generalized additive model (GAM) was built to assess the smooth relationship between metabolic syndrome/metabolic syndrome severity score and sleep duration. Adjustment of models were done for age, sex, race, and sitting time. The value of effective degree of freedom (EDF) formed by the GAM model shows the degree of curvature of the relationship. A value of 1 for EDF is translated as the linear shape of relationship. Values larger than one denote a more complex relationship between the response variable and the predicting one. Results: There was a U-shaped association between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome in univariable GAM (EDF = 2.43, p = 0.06) and multivariable GAM (EDF = 2.03, p = 0.20). The lowest risk of metabolic syndrome was observed in people sleeping 7 hours/night. There was a significant U-shaped association between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome severity score in multivariable GAM (EDF = 2.94, p = 0.0004). Similarly, the lowest mean metabolic syndrome severity score was observed in people sleeping 7 hours/night. There was an effect modification of sex and sleep duration indicating strong U-shaped relationship of metabolic syndrome severity score and sleep duration in women (EDF = 3.43, p = 0.00002) and semi-linear association in men (EDF = 1.76, p = 0.04). Conclusion: Short and long sleep duration was associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome and higher scores of metabolic syndrome severity score in women. Short sleep duration was associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome and higher scores of metabolic syndrome severity score in men. View Full-Text
Keywords: sleep; metabolic syndrome; metabolic syndrome severity score; generalized additive model; effect modification sleep; metabolic syndrome; metabolic syndrome severity score; generalized additive model; effect modification
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Smiley, A.; King, D.; Bidulescu, A. The Association between Sleep Duration and Metabolic Syndrome: The NHANES 2013/2014. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2582.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop