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Are Circulating Mg2+ Levels Associated with Glucose Tolerance Profiles and Incident Type 2 Diabetes?

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, University Sapienza of Rome, 00189 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2460;
Received: 10 September 2019 / Revised: 3 October 2019 / Accepted: 10 October 2019 / Published: 14 October 2019
Magnesium (Mg2+) is an enzyme co-factor that plays a key role in many biochemical reactions, as well as in glucose metabolism. Clinical evidences have demonstrated that depletion of serum Mg2+ increases exponentially with the duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Diabetes is associated with low Mg2+, and hypomagnesemia is associated with insulin resistance, inflammation, and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In subjects at high risk of inflammation and insulin resistance, supplementation of Mg2+ alone ameliorates both phenotypes, slowing the development and progression of hepatic steatosis. We analyze the relationship between serum Mg2+ levels and the onset of T2DM in a large cohort of well-characterized adult white individuals participating in the CATAMERI study, who were reexamined after a mean follow-up of 5.6 ± 0.9 years. In our analysis we acquired a significant negative correlation between Mg2+ levels, fasting glucose, and 2h-post load glucose in subjects who underwent an OGTT. Moreover, Mg2+ levels correlated negatively with fasting insulin levels, and positively with the lipid profile. As for the detrimental effect of lower circulating Mg2+ levels, our data revealed a significant reduction of T2DM risk of about 20% for each 1 mg/dL increase of circulating Mg2+. The present results are consistent with the theory that Mg2+ supplementation could ameliorate insulin sensitivity reducing the risk to develop T2DM. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnesium; type 2 diabetes; glucose tolerance; survival analysis magnesium; type 2 diabetes; glucose tolerance; survival analysis
MDPI and ACS Style

Spiga, R.; Mannino, G.C.; Mancuso, E.; Averta, C.; Paone, C.; Rubino, M.; Sciacqua, A.; Succurro, E.; Perticone, F.; Andreozzi, F.; Sesti, G. Are Circulating Mg2+ Levels Associated with Glucose Tolerance Profiles and Incident Type 2 Diabetes? Nutrients 2019, 11, 2460.

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