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Open AccessReview

Grape Seeds Proanthocyanidins: An Overview of In Vivo Bioactivity in Animal Models

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus of Cartuja, 18071 Granada, Spain
2
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INYTA) ‘José Mataix’, Biomedical Research Centre, University of Granada, Avenida del Conocimiento s/n, E-18071 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2435; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102435
Received: 3 September 2019 / Revised: 26 September 2019 / Accepted: 2 October 2019 / Published: 12 October 2019
Over the last decade, proanthocyanidins (PACs) are attracting attention not only from the food industry but also from public health organizations due to their health benefits. It is well-known that grapes are a good source of PACs and for that reason, the industry is also focused on grape by-products identification and bioactivity evaluation. Grape seeds extract (GSPE) is a rich source of PACs, mainly composed of monomeric catechin and epicatechin, gallic acid and polymeric and oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Thus, this review encompasses the state-of-art structure and the most recent evidence about the impact of GSPE on chronic diseases, with a focus on oxidative stress, inflammation and metabolic syndrome (MeS)-related disorders such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular risk disease in vivo to offer new perspectives in the field that allow further research. Despite the controversial results, is undeniable that PACs from grape seeds are highly antioxidants, thus, the capacity of GSPE to improve oxidative stress might mediate the inflammation process and the progress of MeS-related pathologies. However, further well-design animal studies with standardized dosages and GSPE composition are necessary to shed light into the cause-effect relationship in a more accurate way to later allow a deeper study of the effect of GSPE in humans.
Keywords: grape seed by-products; proanthocyanidins; metabolic syndrome; chronic diseases; in vivo animal studies grape seed by-products; proanthocyanidins; metabolic syndrome; chronic diseases; in vivo animal studies
MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez-Pérez, C.; García-Villanova, B.; Guerra-Hernández, E.; Verardo, V. Grape Seeds Proanthocyanidins: An Overview of In Vivo Bioactivity in Animal Models. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2435.

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