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Open AccessArticle

The Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activity of Polyphenols from Almond (Prunus dulcis L.) Skin

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Science, University of Messina, Viale SS. Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy
Shenzhen International Institute for Biomedical Research, 140 Jinye Ave. Building A10, Dapeng New District, Shenzhen 518116, Guangdong, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2355;
Received: 8 August 2019 / Revised: 10 September 2019 / Accepted: 23 September 2019 / Published: 3 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nuts Intake and Human Health)
Due to their antimicrobial and antiviral activity potential in vitro, polyphenols are gaining a lot of attention from the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries. A novel antiviral and antimicrobial approach could be based on the use of polyphenols obtained from natural sources. Here, we tested the antibacterial and antiviral effect of a mix of polyphenols present in natural almond skin (NS MIX). The antimicrobial potential was evaluated against the standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains, by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Herpes simplex virus type I was used for the antiviral assessment of NS MIX by plaque assay. Furthermore, we evaluated the expression of viral cascade antigens. NS MIX exhibited antimicrobial (MIC values of 0.31–1.25 mg/ml) and antiviral activity (decrease in the viral titer ** p < 0.01, and viral DNA accumulation * p < 0.05) against Staphylococcus aureus and HSV-1, respectively. Amongst the isolated compounds, the aglycones epicatechin and catechin showed the greatest activity against S. aureus ATCC 6538P (MIC values of 0.078–0.15 and 0.15 mg/ml, respectively), but were not active against all the other strains. These results could be used to develop novel products for topical use. View Full-Text
Keywords: S. aureus; antimicrobial; herpes simplex virus; antiviral; almonds; polyphenols S. aureus; antimicrobial; herpes simplex virus; antiviral; almonds; polyphenols
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MDPI and ACS Style

Musarra-Pizzo, M.; Ginestra, G.; Smeriglio, A.; Pennisi, R.; Sciortino, M.T.; Mandalari, G. The Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activity of Polyphenols from Almond (Prunus dulcis L.) Skin. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2355.

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