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Open AccessArticle

Protective Effect of Spirulina platensis Extract against Dextran-Sulfate-Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
2
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, El-Minia 61511, Egypt
3
Department of Pharmacology, M. M. College of Pharmacy, Maharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed to University), Mullana, Ambala, Haryana 133203, India
4
Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Durban University of Technology, Durban 4000, South Africa
5
Department of Molecular Medicine, Princess Al-Jawhara Centre for Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama 329, Bahrain
6
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, El-Minia 61511, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2309; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102309
Received: 30 July 2019 / Revised: 4 September 2019 / Accepted: 16 September 2019 / Published: 29 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD))
Inflammatory bowel disease is a multifactorial inflammatory condition. This study aimed to test the protective effects of Spirulina platensis against ulcerative colitis (UC). UC was induced in thirty-six male Wistar rats by adding dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to their drinking water, while a control group received only drinking water. UC rats were equally-divided into six groups that received a single oral daily dose of vehicle (DSS), sulfasalazine (SSZ, 50 mg/kg/day), chloroform or the hydroalcoholic extracts of Spirulina platensis (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) for 15 days, and then blood and colon samples were harvested for determination of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and histopathology. At the end of the study, compared to time-matched controls, UC rats showed increased TNF-α (1.64-fold), IL-6 (5.73-fold), ESR (3.18-fold), and MPO (1.61-fold), along with loss of body weight (24.73%) and disease activity index (1.767 ± 0.216 vs. 0 ± 0), p < 0.001. These effects were prevented by SSZ treatment (p < 0.001 vs. DSS). The hydroalcoholic extract of Spirulina platensis dose-dependently modulated all DSS-induced inflammatory changes. However, the chloroform extract significantly lowered only IL-6 and ESR, but not TNF-α or MPO levels. The protective effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Spirulina platensis against experimental UC involved mitigation of DSS-induced inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Spirulina platensis; ulcerative colitis; dextran sulfate sodium; tumor necrosis factor-α; interleukin-6; myeloperoxidase Spirulina platensis; ulcerative colitis; dextran sulfate sodium; tumor necrosis factor-α; interleukin-6; myeloperoxidase
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Morsy, M.A.; Gupta, S.; Nair, A.B.; Venugopala, K.N.; Greish, K.; El-Daly, M. Protective Effect of Spirulina platensis Extract against Dextran-Sulfate-Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2309.

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