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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Spanish Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the SI! Program for Health Promotion in Secondary Schools

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Foundation for Science, Health and Education (SHE), 08008 Barcelona, Spain
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Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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The Zena and Michael A. Wiener Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
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Centro de Investigación Biomédica En Red en enfermedades CardioVasculares (CIBERCV), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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GENUD (Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development) Research Group, Faculty of Health Science, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
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Consorcio CIBER, M.P. Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Department of Nutrition, Food Science and Gastronomy, School of Pharmacy and Food Sciences, XaRTA, INSA, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
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Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Departament de Bioquímica i Biotecnologia, Unitat de Nutrició Humana. Hospital Universitari Sant Joan de Reus, Institut d’Investigació Pere Virgili (IISPV), 43201 Reus, Spain
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Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Clínic, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2297; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102297
Received: 30 August 2019 / Revised: 23 September 2019 / Accepted: 24 September 2019 / Published: 26 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Benefits of Vegetables and Fruits)
Previous studies on the association between dietary habits and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in adolescents have generated conflicting results. The aim of this study was to describe dietary patterns (DP) in a large sample of Spanish adolescents and to assess their cross-sectional relationship with CVRF. In total, 1324 adolescents aged 12.5 ± 0.4 years (51.6% boys) from 24 secondary schools completed a self-reported food frequency questionnaire. DPs were derived by cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profile, and glucose levels were assessed. Linear mixed models were applied to estimate the association between DPs and CVRF. Three DP-related clusters were obtained: Processed (29.2%); Traditional (39.1%); and Healthy (31.7%). Analogous patterns were obtained in the PCA. No overall differences in CVRF were observed between clusters except for z-BMI values, total cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol, with the Processed cluster showing the lowest mean values. However, differences were small. In conclusion, the overall association between DPs, as assessed by two different methods, and most analyzed CVRF was weak and not clinically relevant in a large sample of adolescents. Prospective analysis may help to disentangle the direction of these associations. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary patterns; adolescents; cardiovascular health; cluster analysis; principal components analysis dietary patterns; adolescents; cardiovascular health; cluster analysis; principal components analysis
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Bodega, P.; Fernández-Alvira, J.M.; Santos-Beneit, G.; de Cos-Gandoy, A.; Fernández-Jiménez, R.; Moreno, L.A.; de Miguel, M.; Carral, V.; Orrit, X.; Carvajal, I.; Storniolo, C.E.; Tresserra-Rimbau, A.; Doménech, M.; Estruch, R.; Lamuela-Raventós, R.M.; Fuster, V. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Spanish Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the SI! Program for Health Promotion in Secondary Schools. Nutrients 2019, 11, 2297.

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