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Open AccessReview

Role of Oleic Acid in the Gut-Liver Axis: From Diet to the Regulation of Its Synthesis via Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 (SCD1)

1
Clinica Medica Cesare Frugoni, Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70124 Bari, Italy
2
INBB, National Institute for Biostructures and Biosystems, 00136 Rome, Italy
3
Department of Pharmacy-Drug Science, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, 70126 Bari, Italy
4
Institut du thorax, INSERM, CNRS, University of Nantes, 44007 Nantes, France
5
Departments of Biochemistry and of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
6
IRCCS Istituto Tumori Giovanni Paolo II, 70124 Bari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(10), 2283; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11102283
Received: 31 August 2019 / Revised: 18 September 2019 / Accepted: 20 September 2019 / Published: 24 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Dietary Intake, Aging, Liver Disease and Cancer)
The consumption of an olive oil rich diet has been associated with the diminished incidence of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Several studies have attributed these beneficial effects to oleic acid (C18 n-9), the predominant fatty acid principal component of olive oil. Oleic acid is not an essential fatty acid since it can be endogenously synthesized in humans. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is the enzyme responsible for oleic acid production and, more generally, for the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The saturated to monounsaturated fatty acid ratio affects the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, and alteration in this ratio has been implicated in a variety of diseases, such as liver dysfunction and intestinal inflammation. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the impact of gene-nutrient interactions in liver and gut diseases, by taking advantage of the role of SCD1 and its product oleic acid in the modulation of different hepatic and intestinal metabolic pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: olive oil; oleic acid; MUFA; stearoyl-CoA desaturase; liver; gut olive oil; oleic acid; MUFA; stearoyl-CoA desaturase; liver; gut
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MDPI and ACS Style

Piccinin, E.; Cariello, M.; De Santis, S.; Ducheix, S.; Sabbà, C.; Ntambi, J.M.; Moschetta, A. Role of Oleic Acid in the Gut-Liver Axis: From Diet to the Regulation of Its Synthesis via Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 (SCD1). Nutrients 2019, 11, 2283.

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