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Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in an Obese State and the Protective Effects of Gallic Acid

1
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
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Biomedical Research and Innovation Platform, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
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School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa
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Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa
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Division of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010023
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 November 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
Metabolic complications in an obese state can be aggravated by an abnormal inflammatory response and enhanced production of reactive oxygen species. Pro-inflammatory response is known to be associated with the formation of toxic reactive oxygen species and subsequent generation of oxidative stress. Indeed, adipocytes from obese individuals display an altered adipokine profile, with upregulated expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-6). Interestingly, natural compounds, including phenolic enriched foods are increasingly explored for their ameliorative effects against various metabolic diseases. Of interest is gallic acid, a trihydroxybenzoic acid that has progressively demonstrated robust anti-obesity capabilities in various experimental models. In addition to reducing excessive lipid storage in obese subjects, gallic acid has been shown to specifically target the adipose tissue to suppress lipogenesis, improve insulin signaling, and concomitantly combat raised pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress. This review will revise mechanisms involved in the pathophysiological effects of inflammation and oxidative stress in an obese state. To better inform on its therapeutic potential and improvement of human health, available evidence reporting on the anti-obesity properties of gallic acid and its derivatives will be discussed, with emphases on its modulatory effect on molecular mechanisms involved in insulin signaling, inflammation and oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; insulin resistance; inflammation; oxidative stress; gallic acid; therapeutic target obesity; insulin resistance; inflammation; oxidative stress; gallic acid; therapeutic target
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dludla, P.V.; Nkambule, B.B.; Jack, B.; Mkandla, Z.; Mutize, T.; Silvestri, S.; Orlando, P.; Tiano, L.; Louw, J.; Mazibuko-Mbeje, S.E. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in an Obese State and the Protective Effects of Gallic Acid. Nutrients 2019, 11, 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010023

AMA Style

Dludla PV, Nkambule BB, Jack B, Mkandla Z, Mutize T, Silvestri S, Orlando P, Tiano L, Louw J, Mazibuko-Mbeje SE. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in an Obese State and the Protective Effects of Gallic Acid. Nutrients. 2019; 11(1):23. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dludla, Phiwayinkosi V., Bongani B. Nkambule, Babalwa Jack, Zibusiso Mkandla, Tinashe Mutize, Sonia Silvestri, Patrick Orlando, Luca Tiano, Johan Louw, and Sithandiwe E. Mazibuko-Mbeje. 2019. "Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in an Obese State and the Protective Effects of Gallic Acid" Nutrients 11, no. 1: 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010023

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