Next Article in Journal
A Plant-Based Meal Increases Gastrointestinal Hormones and Satiety More Than an Energy- and Macronutrient-Matched Processed-Meat Meal in T2D, Obese, and Healthy Men: A Three-Group Randomized Crossover Study
Previous Article in Journal
Sweet and Umami Taste Perception Differs with Habitual Exercise in Males
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Nutrients 2019, 11(1), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010156

The Gut–Brain Axis in the Neuropsychological Disease Model of Obesity: A Classical Movie Revised by the Emerging Director “Microbiome”

1
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla 3, 50134 Florence, Italy
2
Department of Biomedicine, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi (AOUC), Largo Brambilla 3, 50134 Florence, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 12 January 2019
Full-Text   |   PDF [1047 KB, uploaded 12 January 2019]   |  

Abstract

The worldwide epidemic of obesity has become an important public health issue, with serious psychological and social consequences. Obesity is a multifactorial disorder in which various elements (genetic, host, and environment), play a definite role, even if none of them satisfactorily explains its etiology. A number of neurological comorbidities, such as anxiety and depression, charges the global obesity burden, and evidence suggests the hypothesis that the brain could be the seat of the initial malfunction leading to obesity. The gut microbiome plays an important role in energy homeostasis regulating energy harvesting, fat deposition, as well as feeding behavior and appetite. Dietary patterns, like the Western diet, are known to be a major cause of the obesity epidemic, probably promoting a dysbiotic drift in the gut microbiota. Moreover, the existence of a “gut–brain axis” suggests a role for microbiome on hosts’ behavior according to different modalities, including interaction through the nervous system, and mutual crosstalk with the immune and the endocrine systems. In the perspective of obesity as a real neuropsychological disease and in light of the discussed considerations, this review focuses on the microbiome role as an emerging director in the development of obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; microbiota; gut–brain axis; neurological disorders; nervous system; inflammation obesity; microbiota; gut–brain axis; neurological disorders; nervous system; inflammation
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Niccolai, E.; Boem, F.; Russo, E.; Amedei, A. The Gut–Brain Axis in the Neuropsychological Disease Model of Obesity: A Classical Movie Revised by the Emerging Director “Microbiome”. Nutrients 2019, 11, 156.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top